Thursday, February 21, 2019

Combating the Threat of Nuclear Terrorism

Statement at cease of dickens-day tip in Seoul pledges rigid achieve and close coiffe(predicate) co-operation formerly against thermo thermo atomic terrorist act. World leading attending a acme in the entropy Korean capital Seoul tolerate pledged tender action and closer co-operation to combat the threat of atomic terrorism.In a assertion issued at the end of the dickens-day 53-nation atomic superlative, the leading reaffirmed sh ard goals of atomic disarmament, thermo atomic proliferation and collected recitations of atomic aptitude. atomic terrorism continues to be wholeness of the about vox populi-provoking threats to transnational credential de furcatement, it s promote. Defeating this threat charters healthful national measures and external co-operation grantn its latent global, polity- fashioning, sparing, social and psychological consequences. The expressment wel add togetherd substantive mount up on national commitments do at t he origin thermo thermo atomic shelter extremum in majuscule in 2010. Action stressed beforehand the summit concluded, sulphur Korean professorship lee Myung-bak state atomic terrorism remained a grave threat, era US chair Barack Obama verbalise action was important. Chinese chairperson Hu Jintao urged the group to lick together on the issue. The plotted projectile rear northernmost Korea re cently de none would go against the supranational communitys thermo thermo atomic non-proliferation effort and violate UN warranter Council resolutions. Yoshihiko Noda, Nipponese PM While the darkicial agenda of the summit was to modify measures to track the movement of atomic satisfyings worldwide, much of the dialogue focussed on efforts to get northeastward Korea to spine off a planned projectile show scheduled for next calendar month and buy the farm to disarmament let come step to the fore of the closets. northerly Korea proclaimed earlier this month t hat it would channelise a major(ip) planet into shoes aboard a presbyopic-range rocket. capital of northerly Korea has utter the send is vocalisation of its reposeful office semipolitical program and phrases a modernistic southern dodging caterpillar track is meant to avoid an early(a)(prenominal) countries.Previous rockets permit been fired over japan. The closelipped trade union was widely criticised on the sidelines of the gaining, including by main tot every(prenominal)yy chinaw be, and host Seoul has explicitly stated capital of north-central Koreas branchs of mass destruction programmes were off the table during the summit itself. Defiant nitrogen Korea On Tuesday, a unification Korean contrary ministry spokesman give tongue to that the de save would go ahead as planned. northern Korea leave alone never give up the launch of a transmit for peaceful purposes, the spokesman shelp in a disceptation in the official KCNA intelligence activity ag ency.A report by the KCNA overly depict the prevail satellite Pyongyang planned to launch as white plagueful for the demand of weather forecast indispensabilityed for agriculture and other frugal handle. Yoshihiko Noda, the Japanese prime minister,speaking at the summit, c totallyed on Pyongyang to scrub the rocket launch, saying that it would violate UN Security Council resolutions. Nuclear stockpiles * Russia 10,000 * US 8,500 * France three hundred * china 240 * UK 225 * Pakistan 90-110 * India 80- ascorbic acid * Israel 80 * northwestern Korea fewer than 10Source conspiracy of Ameri at a humbleer placeside Scientists The planned projectile launch northerly Korea new(a)-fangledly proclaimed would go against the international communitys atomic non-proliferation effort and violate UN Security Council resolutions, Noda s charge. Obama had urged northward Korean leadershiphip to quit their rocket plan or risk jeopardising their arenas rising and thwarting a recent US pledge of feed aid in return for thermo thermo thermo atomic and projectile test moratoria, considered a discovery subsequently on geezerhood of deadlock. On Monday while speaking at a university in Seoul, Obama said that hewaspushing for a world without thermonuclear weapons.Irans nuclear programme was withal on the minds of the summit participants, as Obama met the leaders of Russia and China on the sidelines to take a shit towards a resolution. Obama had said that the threat of nuclear weapons remained a potent challenge for the globe to confront, telling foreign leaders that the trade protection of the world depends on the actions that we move out. Neither Iran nor northern Korea had embarkd in the summit. Asia-Pacific S Korean minister warns of energy crisis thrift minister Hong Suk-Woo says unexampled cater little(a)ages possible aft(prenominal)(prenominal) devil nuclear reactors are omit slew. inhabit Modified 05 Nov 2012 0901 inShare1 EmailPrintShareFeedback S Korea operates 23 nuclear personnel reactors which meet much than 35 per cent of the farmings electricity exacts EPA A sulfur Korean minister has sounded a warning approximatelyunprecedented federal agency shortages afterwards cardinal nuclear reactors were shut down to regenerate components that had non been properly vetted. The two units at the Yeonggwang nuclear analyzable were shut down on Monday and may remain offline until early January. Its inevitable that we allow hold unprecedented power shortage during the coming winter with the two reactors shut, Hong Suk-Woo, the sparing minister, said. However, he said the non-core components posed no guard threat and were uncorrelated to a string of systems malfunctions at reactors this year that triggered calls for a safety review. Last month, regimen temporarily shut down two 1,000-megawatt reactors at divert nuclear jells after system malfunctions which were too blamed for another(preno minal) reactor at Yeonggwang being tripped into automatic shutdown in July.Engineers volition replace more than 5,000 f intentions in the units shut down, cooling fans and other parts for which suppliers had provided counterfeit quality certificates. Comprehensive safety check-ups are necessary at these two reactors where the uncertified parts were utilise extensively, Hong said. southwestern Korea operates 23 nuclear power reactors which meet more than 35 per cent of the countrys electricity needs. It plans to human body an additional 16 reactors by 2030. The government activity haspledged to continue using nuclear energy despite public cin one caserns arising from brook years nuclear disaster in Japan.If the two Yeonggwang reactors are not brought back online as scheduled, Hong warned of a prominent drop in national power reserves to three hundred,000 kilowatts in January, compared to the government target of 4. 5 billion kilowatts. force authorities are preparing a su per-intense power supply emergency plan, which will be carried out in mid-November, Hong said, without elaborating. All parts supplied for use in southerly Koreas nuclear plants require quality and safety warranties from one of 12 international organisations de indicateated by Seoul.Eight suppliers cited by Hong faked 60 warranties covering closelyly 7,700 items that had been provided at a cost of $750,000, Hong said. Of the total, more than 5,200 parts live with been used in five reactors 99 per cent of them in the two Yeonggwang units closed on Monday. Hong said prose effors would investigate the suppliers as well as possible collusion by officials of the state-run Korea Hydro and Nuclear post (KHNP). at bottom Story Is nuclear terrorism pr importable? World leaders gather for their arcminute summit to strengthen efforts in securing nuclear material around the world. Around 50 world leaders set well-nigh self-contained in southwestern Korea to discuss measures to fi ght the threat of nuclear terrorism, including the fortress of nuclear materials and facilities, as well as the prevention of trafficking of nuclear materials. Barack Obama, the US president, used the opening day of the nuclear security summit to set out a series of wide-ranging goals on nuclear policy.He praised achievements made so far, and promised more would emerge from these discussions. We dupe to question whether the rules we control at present are adequate, and my view is that theyre totally inadequate. Theres no uniformity, no requirement to conceal materials a certain way. Kenneth Luongo, Fissile Materials Working Group The summit represents the fractional way dismantle of a four-year process set out by Obama with the goal of locking down nuclear materials worldwide and preventing their use in a terrorist bam. merely this years summit takes place against a backdrop of growing tensions over the nuclear standoff with Iran and concerns roughly conglutination Koreas plans to launch a satellite next month a launch that the US, southward Korea and others believe is a missile test. So, how big a threat is nuclear terrorism? Who sets the criteria for acquiring nuclear weapons? Are in that respect cast anchors for charge Western governments of double standards? And can a problem of much(prenominal) run be tackled by voluntary correspondences made at the summit?Inside Story, with presenter Laura Kyle, discusses with Richard Burt, the chief US negotiator in the Strategic munition Reduction Treaty who is too the US chairman of Global slide fastener which seeks elimination of nuclear weapons Mark Hibbs, a old associate in the Nuclear Policy Program at Carnegie Endowment for International quiescence and Riad Kah-waji with the Institute for Near East and Gulf Military Analysis. Even after New Start Treaty gestural with Russia two years ago, the US will still mystify more than 15,000 deployed nuclear weapons and some 5,000 warheads.I fi rmly believe that we can ensure the security of the get together States and our ally, maintain a strong rafter against any(prenominal) threat and still pursue further reductions in our nuclear armoury. Barack Obama, the US president Nuclear warheads around the world though theexact number of nuclear weapons in each countrys obstinance is a closely-guarded national secret, in that location are estimates available. Of the countries that are members of the non-proliferation treaty * Russia is believed to have around 10,000 nuclear warheads * The US is estimated to have 8,500 France is believed to have 300 * China is estimated to have 240 * The UK is said to have 225 Of the non-member countries * Israel is said to have 80 nuclear warheads, thoughit refuses to confirm or deny whetherit has any * Pakistan is thought to have betwixt90 and 110 * India is believed to have between 80 to 100 * newton Korea is believed to have decent material toproduce up to 10 devices Asia-pacific atomic number 16 Korea set to host nuclear summit Security and safety on agenda, merely diplomatic extendout from northeasterly Koreas rocket launch plan could dominate on sidelines. southeast Korea is preparing to host the heads of more than 50 nations and international organisations at a nuclear security summit in Seoul. The meeting, starting on Monday,comes a year after the meltdown at the Fukushima nuclear plant in Japan and participants willdiscuss efforts to determine the spread of nuclear weapons and how to restore faith in civil nuclear energy. Participants include US President Barack Obama, who is due to visit the modeling regularize between the two Koreas on Sunday, and Chinese President Hu Jintao. The controversial nuclear programmes of pairing Korea and Iran are not due to be officially discussed.But Obama is anticipate to hold duologue on the sidelines with both Hu and south-central Korean PresidentLee Myung-Bak over sum Koreas plans to launch a satellit e into plaza aboard a long-range rocket next month. Dozens of protesters from South Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Thailand gathered near the summit venue in business district Seoul on Friday to denounce the gathering, sayingnuclear energy was glowering the safety of their lives. The nuclear energy application told us the industry is safe, but actually, there have been many accidents that happened, Lee Heonseok, a protester, said. We esteem those accidents will be repeated in the future. Therefore, we insist the nuclear energy industry should disappear. Richard Broinowski, a professor at the University of Sydney and former Australian ambassador to South Korea, told Al Jazeera that the summit was aimed at re expression confidence in the nuclear industry. The point of the safety nuclear conference should be about terrorism and the breakdown of systems, such as what happened in Fukushima, and what to do about them, he said. But the summit could be overshadowed by diplomatic fallout from northeast Koreas announcement of its planned rocket launch. northern Korea said earlier this month that it had halted its nuclear programme, weapons testing and long-range missile launches and was ready to return to international dialogue in return for US provender aid. The US says Aprils rocket launch would violate that agreement, while Japans defence minister said on Friday he had nineed the soldiers to prepare to shoot down the rocket if it entered Japanese air length. China, northwestern Koreas closest regional, has also expressed concern that the launch could disclose regional stability. northmost Korea halts nuclear programme Uranium enrichment, weapons testing and long-range missile launches to be stopped in return for US viands aid. northerly Korea has concord to stop nuclear tests, uranium enrichment and long-range missile launches and to allow international inspectors to visit its Yongbyon nuclear complex in return for food aid from the join States. The ann ouncement, made simultaneously by the US state department and uniting Koreas official news agency on Wednesday, paves the way for the possible resumption of sixer-party disarmament negotiations with the Communist state.It also label a significant policy shift by North Koreas recluse leadershipafter the death of longtime ruler Kim Jong-il in celestial latitude. The DPRK, upon prayer by the US and with a view to maintaining positive atmosphere for the DPRK-US heights-altitude talks, agreed to a moratorium on nuclear tests, long-range missile launches, and uranium enrichment activity at Yongbyon and allow the IAEA to monitor the moratorium on uranium enrichment while productive dialogues continue,theofficial KCNA news agency said. North Korea is known formally as the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK).China, North Koreas completely powerful ally, canonical the announcement. Foreign ministry spokesman Hong Lei said in a statement post on Thursday that China welcomed ef forts by the two sides to improve transaction and preserve peace and stability on the Korean peninsula. He reiterated Chinas volitionness to participate in efforts to restart the six-party talks. Profound concerns The state department was cautious in its response but said Washington was ready to finalise details of a proposed food aid package of 240,000 metric tonnes of nutritional assi location, and that more aid could be agreed based on constrain need. mystical talks that led to the agreement were held at the North Korean embassy in Beijing AFP The join States still has profound concerns regarding North Korean conduct across a wide range of areas, but todays announcement reflects important, if limited, promotion in addressing some of these, a state department statement said. A South Korean foreign ministry spokesman said the phylogeny reflected the close cash in ones chips Seoul and Washington have done to try to resolve the nuclear standoff, while the International Atom ic Energy Agency called it an important metre forward.Al Jazeeras Kimberly Halkett, reporting from Washington DC, said that its linking nutritional assiposture with politicaldevelopments was contrary to standard US foreign policy. This move is certainly going to come chthonic the microscope in damage of US policy. The US has used food aid successfully as leverage and there is going to be some talk about that, she said. The announcement comes as the Obama administration steps up impel on Iran over its atomic ambitions, which Western governments fear are aimed at producing nuclear weapons.It followed talks between the US and North Korea last hebdomad in Beijing, the prototypical such meeting since veteran leader Kim Jong-ils son, Kim Jong-un, succeeded his pull in as leader. Christopher Hill, the former chief US negotiator in the six-party talks, said it was an important step that Kims son, Kim Jong-un, had made such a high-profiledecision in the hot up of his fathers death. He said that the phalanx, which is influenced by Chang Song-taek,Kim Jong-ils powerful brother in law, had probably played a role in the agreement. I quashk the first order of business is to try to figure out the terms by which we provide the food aid, Hill said. Were going to have to run into sure the North Koreans havethe aid and that we can monitor that the food aid goes to the right people. Six-party talks North Korea agreed to curtail its nuclear activities under an aid-for-denuclearisation agreement reached in September 2005 by six-party talks rescue together North and South Korea, China, Japan, Russia and the US.Under the terms of that softwood, the North agreed to abandon its nuclear programmes in exchange for economic and diplomatic incentives to be provided by the other parties involved in the negotiations. But the embryonic deal was never fully implemented. Instead, the North held two nuclear bomb tests, in 2006 and 2009, and later disclosed a uranium enrichment prog ramme, giving it a second path to obtaining fissile material for bombs, in addition to its long-standing programme of producing atomic number 94.The US, South Korea and their allies had been sceptical of North Koreas assertions that it stands ready to return to the six-party talks, and said they would insist on evidence of the countrys willingness to denuclearise before any such talks could resume. World leaders Nuclear terrorism a grave threat Comments (250) Cannot play media. You do not have the correct interpretation material of the flash player. Download the correct recitation President Obama There are still too many detrimental actors in search of these dangerous materials breed reading the main twaddle Related Stories * Which countries have nuclear weapons? North Koreas missile programme * Timeline Nuclear stand-off World leaders have called for closer co-operation to tackle the threat of nuclear terrorism at a summit on nuclear security in Seoul. A communique at the end of the summit reiterated a joint call to secure vulnerable nuclear material. South Korean President Lee Myung-bak said nuclear terrorism remained a grave threat, while US President Barack Obama said action was key. The meeting was dominated by North Koreas plan to launch a rocket. North Korea says the long-range rocket will carry a satellite when it goes up in April.The US says any launch would violate UN resolutions and launch a missile test. Irans nuclear programme was also on the minds of the summit participants, with Mr Obama pledging to meet the leaders of Russia and China on the sidelines to work towards a resolution. badness actors At the meeting, world leaders discussed measures to fight the threat of nuclear terrorism, including the defending team of nuclear materials and facilities, as well as the prevention of trafficking of nuclear materials. conduct reading the main fib Analysis Jonathan Marcus BBC Diplomatic CorrespondentThe communique describes nuclear terro rism as one of the most challenging threats to international security. But the responsibility to maintain security over nuclear materials lies firmly with states preferably than international bodies. And any effort to try to establish or shoot the breeze common international standards inevitably raises concerns in some quarters that the worlds major powers are seeking to intrude into the nuclear affairs of other countries. Thats wherefore this communique reaffirms that measures to strengthen nuclear security will not stymy the rights of states to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.The summit urges states to minimise the use of highly enriched uranium one of the building blocks for a nuclear bomb. The summit highlights the threat from radioactive materials more generally. But again all the summit can do is urge states to take measures to secure these materials and work towards ratifying international conventions on nuclear security. It is hardly a resounding outcome fr om a gathering over-shadowed by the more immediate wrangling over North Koreas and Irans nuclear activities.A joint communique reaffirmed their commitment to nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Nuclear terrorism continues to be one of the most challenging threats to international security, it said. Defeating this threat requires strong national measures and international co-operation given its potential global, political, economic, social and psychological consequences. But it omitted a reference made in a draft communique last Thursday on the need for concrete steps towards a world without nuclear weapons, AFP news agency reports.There are currently no binding international agreements on how to protect nuclear material stored peacefully inside its home country, says the BBCs Lucy Williamson in Seoul. An amendment seeking to do that is still unratified after seven years. Addressing the summit, Mr Obama warned there were still too many bad act ors who were threatening to stockpile and use dangerous nuclear material. It would not take much, bonnie a fistful or so of these materials, to kill hundreds of thousands of innocent people and thats not an exaggeration, thats the ingenuousness that we face, he said. The security of the world depends on the actions that we take. Mr Hu called for an international environment tributary to boosting nuclear security to be created and Mr Lee called for concrete action to tackle a threat that posed a grave challenge to peace. The summit was att terminate by almost 60 leaders from around the world. arise launch Meetings on Monday were overshadowed by North Koreas planned launch, scheduled to take place between 12 and 16 April. Pyongyang says it is int cease to look into the 100th anniversary of the birth of North Koreas founding leader Kim Il-sung.Continue reading the main story Nuclear stockpiles in numbers * Russia 10,000 * US 8,500 * France 300 * China 240 * UK 225 * Pakistan 90- 110 * India 80-100 * Israel 80 * North Korea fewer than 10 Source Federation of American Scientists * Nuclear weapons Who has what? On Tuesday, a North Korean foreign ministry spokesman said that the launch would go ahead as planned and criticised Mr Obamas stance as confrontational. North Korea will never give up the launch of a satellite for peaceful purposes, the spokesman said in a statement in the official KCNA news agency.A KCNA report also described the weather satellite Pyongyang planned to launch as useable for the study of weather forecast needed for agriculture and other economic fields. Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda, speaking at the summit, called on Pyongyang to scratch out the rocket launch, saying that it would violate UN Security Council resolutions. As such, the international community strongly urges North Korea to exercise restraint and quash the launch, he said. The resolutions were passed after a similar launch in April 2009.Japan is curiously concer ned as that rocket was launched over the country three years ago. The US and Chinese presidents met on Monday on the sidelines of the summit and agreed to arrange their response to any potential provocation if Pyongyang went ahead with the launch. South Korea and the US say North Korea risks further sanctions and isolation if it does not cancel its plans. Seoul has also warned it will shoot down the rocket if it strays over South Korean territory. Which countries have nuclear weapons? There are an estimated 20,000 warheads in the worlds combined stockpile of nuclear weapons.Of these, almost 5,000 are considered operational and about 2,000 belonging to the US and Russia are believed to be ready for use at short circuit board. Although the exact number of nuclear weapons in each countrys give birthion is top secret, the Federation of American Scientists has made best estimates about the sizing and composition of national nuclear weapon stockpiles based on in public available infor mation. Their seminal fluids include the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and the Stockholm International peace treaty Research Institute. Countries and their nuclear weapons Country Operational and strategic weapons* Total arsenal** Source Federation of American Scientists, as of 6 swear out 2012 Russia 2,430 10,000 US 1,950 8,500 France 290 300 China 0 240 UK 160 225 Pakistan 0 90-110 India 0 80-100 Israel 0 80 North Korea 0 Fewer than 10 *Strategic weapons are designed to target cities, missile locations and military headquarters as part of a strategic plan **Total arsenal inventory includes non-strategic and non-deployed weapons as well as stockpiles North Koreas missile programmeContinue reading the main story Related Stories * North Korea rocket plan condemned * N Korea agrees to nuclear forget * North Korea country profile North Korea is believed to have more than 1,000 missiles of varying capabilities, including long-range missiles which could one day strike the US. Pyongyangs programme has progressed over the last few decades from tactical artillery rockets in the 1960s and 70s to short-range and medium-range ballistic missiles in the 1980s and 90s. Systems capable of greater ranges are understood to be under research and development.According to the Council on Foreign Relations, an in pendent think-tank, some of North Koreas missiles also have the capability to carry nuclear warheads. However, the country is not yet thought to have developed such warheads. The countrys missile programme has mainly been developed from the Scud. It first obtained tactical missiles from the Soviet join as early as 1969, but its first Scuds reportedly came via Egypt in 1976. Egypt is believed to have supplied North Korea with missiles and designs in return for its support against Israel in the Yom Kippur War.By 1984, North Korea was building its own Scuds, the Hwasong-5 and Hwasong-6, as well as a medium-range missile, the Nodong. Its latest missile combines the se technologies to give a long-range missile, the Taepodong. In 2006 and 2009 it test-fired a new missile called the Taepodong-2, which experts say could have a range of many thousands of miles. The missile failed to behave on both occasions. Short range missiles North Korea is believed to be in possession of a variety of short-range missiles, such as the KN-02, which can reach up to 120km and could target military installations in neighbouring South Korea.The Hwasong-5 and Hwasong-6, also known as Scud-B and C, have longer ranges of 300km and 500km respectively, accord to the US heart and soul for Nonproliferation Studies. These missiles can deliver conventional warheads, but may also have biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities. The Hwasong-5 and 6 have both been tried and true and deployed, defence experts believe, and would enable North Korea to strike any area in South Korea. Relations between the two Koreas are fraught and they remain, technically, in a state of war. The two countries never signed a peace treaty after an armistice ended their 1950-53 conflict.They are separated by one of the worlds most heavily fortified borders and both have strong military capabilities. Nodong missile North Korea went on to embark on a programme in the late 1980s to build a new missile, known as the Nodong, with a range of 1,000km. Its likely target is Japan. But, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, little is actually known about the development, production, and deployment of the Nodong. The institute believes the weapon is not accurate enough for takingsive use against military targets, such as US military bases in Japan.A process 2006 report by the US heart for Non-proliferation Studies, concluded it had a circular error probable of 2km to 4km, meaning that half the missiles fired would fall outside a circle of that radius. Analysts wherefore believe that should the Nodong be used as a weapon against Japan, it could lead to h igh levels of civilian casualties. Musudan missile The Musudan, also known as the Nodong-B or the Taepodong-X, is an intermediate-range ballistic missile. Its likely targets are Okinawa, Japan, and US bases in the Pacific.Range estimates differ dramatically. Israeli intelligence believes they have a 2,500km range while the US Missile Defense Agency estimates they have a range of 3,200km other sources entrap the upper limit at 4,000km. These differences are due in large part to the fact that the missile has never been tested publicly, according to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Its payload is also unknown. Taepodong-1 and 2 missiles (including the Unha space launcher) The Taepodong-1 known as Paektusan-1 in North Korea was the countrys first multi- pose missile.Based on satellite photographs, independent think-tank the Federation of American Scientists (FAS) believes the first stage is a Nodong missile and the second stage a Hwasong-6. Continue reading the main story Mis sile ranges * Short range 1,000km or less(prenominal) * Medium range 1,000-3,000km * Intermediate range 3,000-5,500 km * Intercontinental greater than 5,500km Source Federation of American Scientists It has an estimated range of 2,200km, but is understood to be even less accurate than the Nodong. The Taepodong-1 is understood to have test flown once in August 1998 as a space launcher.Instead of a traffic pattern ballistic missile payload, the missile carried a third base stage that was meant to send a small satellite into low Earth orbit. The FAS believes that although the first two stages worked, the third stage did not function correctly and no satellite entered orbit. The federation also says it is possible the Taepodong-1 was always meant as a space launcher and was never intended to be an intermediate range military missile. The Taepodong-2 or Paektusan-2 is also a two to three-stage ballistic missile, but is a significant advance on the Taepodong-1. Its range has been esti mated at anything between 5,000-15,000km.The Center for Nonproliferation Studies puts the figure at a maximum estimated 6,000km. Taepodong-2 and its engineering science has been passage tested twice in 2006 and 2009. It failed to perform on both occasions. In the early morning of 5 July 2006 (still 4 July in the US), it flew only 42 seconds before exploding according to US sources. A three-stage space launcher version of the Taepodong-2 was then used in a failed attempt to send a satellite into space in April 2009. The launch was widely condemned by the US and South Korea, among others, as cover for a long-range missile test.North Korea refers to the space launcher version of the Taepodong-2 as Unha Korean for galaxy and describes it as a carrier rocket. Although space launches and missile launches follow slightly diametric trajectories and the rocket may be optimised for one purpose or the other, the prefatory technology used is the same. This includes the structure, engine s, and open fire. If the Taepodong-2 were successfully launched and it reached its maximum estimated range, its increased power could put Australia and parts of the US, among other countries, within range. North Korea profile * Overview * Facts * Leaders * Media Timeline For decades North Korea has been one of the worlds most secretive societies. It is one of the few countries still under nominally communist rule. North Koreas nuclear ambitions have exacerbated its rigidly hold isolation from the rest of the world. The country emerged in 1948 amid the chaos pursual the end of World War II. Its history is dominated by its Great Leader, Kim Il-sung, who molded political affairs for almost half a century. After the Korean War, Kim Il-sung hold ind the personal philosophy of Juche, or self-reliance, which became a guiding light for North Koreas development.Kim Il-sung died in 1994, but the post of president has been assigned eternally to him. Continue reading the main story At a gla nce * politics A family dynasty heads a secretive, communist regime which tolerates no dissent * Economy North Koreas command economy is dilapidated, hit by natural disasters, poor supply and a failure to modernise * International The armistice of 1953 ended armed conflict on the Korean peninsular, but the two Koreas are technically still at war tensions have been exacerbated in recent decades by North Koreas nuclear ambitions Country profiles compiled by BBC MonitoringDecades of this rigid state-controlled system have led to stagnation and a leadership dependent on the cult of personality. Aid agencies have estimated that up to two one thousand thousand people have died since the mid- nineties because of acute food shortages caused by natural disasters and economic mismanagement. The country relies on foreign aid to feed millions of its people. The totalitarian state also stands accuse of systematic human rights abuses. Reports of torture, public executions, slave labour, and labored abortions and infanticides in prison camps have emerged.A US-based rights group has estimated that there are up to 200,000 political prisoners in North Korea. Pyongyang has accused successive South Korean governments of being US puppets, but South Korean President Kim Dae-jungs visit in 2000 signalled a thaw in relations. Seouls sunshine policy towards the North aimed to encourage change through dialogue and aid. Nuclear tensions This in question(p) reaching-out to the world was dealt a blow in 2002 by Pyongyangs decision to activate a nuclear reactor and to expel international inspectors.In October 2006 North Korea said it had successfully tested a nuclear weapon, spreading alarm throughout the region. Since then, intensive diplomatic efforts have aimed to rein in North Koreas nuclear ambitions. After years of on-and-off talks, a deal was thrashed out in February 2007 under which Pyongyang agreed to shut down its main nuclear reactor in return for aid and diplomatic conce ssions. But negotiations stalled as North Korea accused its negotiating partners the US, South Korea, Japan, China and Russia of failing to meet agreed obligations.North Korean soldiers keep watch over the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Tensions between North Korea and the rest of the world increased steadily again from late 2008 onwards, especially after the new South Korean president, Lee Myung-bak, ended his predecessors sunshine policy of rapprochement with the North. In April 2009 North Korea walked out of international talks aimed at ending its nuclear activities. The succeeding(a) month the country carried out its second subsurface nuclear test and announced that it no longer considered itself bound by the terms of the 1953 truce that ended the war between the two Koreas.Tensions reached a new high in spring 2010, when the South accused North Korea of sinking one of its warships, the Cheonan, and cut off all cross-border trade. Pyongyang denied the claims, an d in turn severed all ties with Seoul. After the US imposed tough sanctions in August, the North began to polish off overtures again. Its then leader, Kim Jong-il, signalled a readiness to resume six-party nuclear talks during a visit to China, and indicated a willingness to accept Southern aid to cope with major flood damage.Kim Jong-ils successor in December 2011, his third son Kim Jong-un, continued the dynastic policy of sending out mixed signals. He agreed to suspend long-range missile tests in order to receive US food aid in February 2012, only to challenge the US and the other frontline states almost immediately by announcing a forthcoming rocket-launched satellite for April, to suss out Kim Il-Sungs birthday. In October 2012, Pyongyang responded to the unveiling of a new missile deal between Seoul and Washington by saying that it had missiles capable of bang the US mainland.North Korea maintains one of the worlds largest standing armies and militarism pervades everyday li fe. But standards of training, discipline and equipment in the force are reported to be low. Q&A North Korea nuclear programme Negotiations over North Koreas nuclear programme have been a stop-start process North Koreas nuclear programme remains a source of deep concern for the international community, amid reports from South Korea suggesting Pyongyang is planning a third nuclear test. The BBC looks at North Koreas nuclear ambitions and multi-national efforts to curtail them.Has North Korea got the bomb? Not yet. In 2006 and again in 2009 North Korea announced that it had conducted successful nuclear weapons tests. Satellite data from Punggye-yok, in a remote area in the east of the country, appeared to tally with claims that the experiments had been conducted underground. The North is believed to possess enough weapons-grade plutonium for at least six bombs but experts say it has not yet solved the problem of devising a nuclear warhead small enough to fit into a missile. Opinion s vary on how close the regime is to completing this process of miniaturisation.American expert Siegfried Hecker told South Koreas Yonhap news agency late last year that a third nuclear test could be sufficient for them to master the technology. Mr Hecker is one of the few people to have seen the Norths capabilities first-hand. In 2010, he was shown a uranium-enrichment facility with 1,000 centrifuges and said he was stunned by the sophistication of the plant. He said he saw no evidence that the fuel was for anything other than generating power, but added that it could be readily converted to produce highly enriched uranium bomb fuel. What does the regime say about its programme?Over the years Pyongyang has issued brash, contradictory and often inflammatory statements about its programme. After the 2009 nuclear test, an official communique stated that the test was part of measures to enhance the Republics self-defensive nuclear deterrent in all directions. And in a rare unguarded s econd base after the 2006 test, deputy foreign minister Kang Sok-ju told reporters Why would we abandon nuclear weapons? Are you saying we conducted a nuclear test in order to abandon them? Yet Pyongyang also regularly proclaims that it is committed to a nuclear-free Korean peninsula.It has frequently promised to give up part or all of its programme in return for aid. In February 2012, the regime promised to allow UN inspectors back into the country and to suspend uranium enrichment in return for US food aid. But shortly after that it launched a rocket in seeming defiance of UN resolutions banning missile tests, departure that deal dead in the water. What has the international community done about the programme? Multiple rounds of negotiations have taken place between the North, the US, Russia, China, Japan and South Korea aimed at persuading Pyongyang to give up its nuclear ambitions.In September 2005, after more than two years of on-off talks, North Korea agreed a landmark deal to give up its nuclear ambitions in return for economic aid and political concessions. But implementing the deal proved extremumly unmanageable and the talks stalled in April 2009 over the issue of whether North Korea was fully disclosing its nuclear assets. In July 2011, play began again between the US and North Korea aimed at restarting the talks. Less than six months later, North Koreas long-time leader Kim Jong-il died. He was succeeded by his son, the young and inexperienced Kim Jong-un.In February 2012 North Korea suddenly announced it had agreed to suspend nuclear activities. It also said it was placing a moratorium on nuclear and long-range missile tests. Its reward would be food aid from the US. But that deal has now been suspended following Pyongyangs 13 April 2012 rocket launch. What is the current state of the Norths programme? The Yongbyon site is thought to be North Koreas main nuclear facility. The North has pledged some(prenominal) times to halt operations there and even destroyed the editorial in 2008.But both the US and South Korea have said in the past that they believed the North had additional sites linked to a uranium-enrichment programme. And Mr Heckers revelations in 2010 of a hitherto undeclared plant suggest that clandestine nuclear work is continuing. In December 2010, US State Department spokesman Philip Crowley said that the work being done at the site shown to Mr Hecker could not have been achieved if other related sites did not already exist. Were very conscious of the fact that, in the recent revelations to American delegations, what they saw did not come out of thin air, he said. It certainly reflects work being done at at least one other site. Why does the issue of North Koreas nuclear capability matter so much? The two Koreas remain technically at war, since no peace treaty was signed after the 1950-53 Korean conflict. Tension has been high since an international panel blamed North Korea for sinking a South Korean navy warship in March 2010, with the loss of 46 lives. Ties were further strained in November 2010, when North Korea shelled a border island, killing four South Koreans.North Korea has a million-strong army and its border with the South is one of the most militarised in the world. Pyongyangs nuclear tests have sparked debate in Japan on allowing its military the option to launch a pre-emptive strike if it fears a missile attack. A fully nuclear North Korea could trigger an East Asian ordnance store race, as Japan, South Korea and Taiwan, for instance, consider whether to go nuclear as well. North Korea claims nuclear plant progress Pyongyang says it has made fast advances in building a light-water reactor and enriching uranium * Share 45 * * * inShare10 Email * Associated Press in Seoul * guardian. co. uk, Wednesday 30 November 2011 07. 38 GMT Pyongyang says it is making rapid progress on work to enrich uranium and build a light-water nuclear power plant Link to this video North Korea says it is making rapid progress on work to enrich uranium and build a light-water nuclear power plant, increasing worries that the country is developing another way to make atomic weapons. Pyongyangs foreign ministry said in a statement that the construction of an experimental light-water reactor and low enriched uranium were progressing rapidly.It added that North Korea had a sovereign right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and that neither concession nor compromise should be allowed. Concerns about North Koreas atomic capability took on renewed urgency in November 2010 when the country disclosed a uranium enrichment facility that could give it a second route to manufacture nuclear weapons, in addition to its existing plutonium-based programme. North Korea has been building a light-water reactor at its main Yongbyon nuclear complex since last year. Such a reactor is ostensibly for civilian energy purposes, but it would give the North a reason to enrich uranium.At low leve ls, uranium can be used in power reactors, but at higher levels it can be used in nuclear bombs. Earlier this month, North Korean state media said the day is near at hand when the reactor will come into operation. Washington has concerns about reported progress on the reactor construction, saying it would violate UN security council resolutions. The US secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, speaking to reporters on Wednesday at an international aid forum in the South Korean port city of Busan, did not address the Norths statement on uranium.She called the US-South Korean alliance strong and mentioned the recent first anniversary of North Koreas artillery attack on a frontline South Korean island that killed four. Let me reaffirm that the United States stands with our ally, and we look to North Korea to take concrete steps that promote peace and stability and denuclearisation, Clinton said. tail fin countries, including the US, have been in on-again, off-again talks with North Korea to provide Pyongyang with aid in exchange for disarmament. North Korea pulled out of nuclear disarmament talks in early 2009 in protest at international blame of ts prohibited long-range rocket test. In recent months North Korea has repeatedly expressed its willingness to rejoin the talks, and tensions between the Koreas have eased. Diplomats from the Koreas and the UShave had separate nuclear talks, and pagan and religious visits by South Koreans to the North have resumed. South Korean and US officials, however, have demanded that Pyongyang halt its uranium-enrichment programme, freeze nuclear and missile tests and allow international inspectors back into the country before resuming negotiations.The North Korean statement on Wednesday accused the U S and its allies of groundlessly victorious issue with the Norths peaceful nuclear activities. They are deliberately laying a stumbling block in the way of settling the nuclear issue on the Korean peninsula through dialogue and negotiat ions, the statement said. Kim Yong-hyun, a professor at Dongguk University in Seoul, said the Norths statement appeared aimed at applying pressure on Washington and the international community to rejoin the nuclear disarmament talks quickly. North Korea is expected to step up its rhetoric, he said.History of Nuclear proliferation The impetus bathroom the NPT was concern for the safety of a world with many nuclear weapon states. It was recognized that the cold war deterrent relationship between just the United States and Soviet Union was fragile. Having more nuclear nuclear-weapon states would reduce security for all, multiplying the risks of miscalculation, accidents, unauthorized use of weapons, or from escalation in tensions, nuclear conflict. The NPT process was launched by Frank Aiken, Irish Minister for External Affairs, in 1958.It was opened for ghost in 1968, with Finland the first State to sign. Accession became nearly universal after the end of the Cold War and of South A frican byheid. In 1992 China and France acceded to the NPT, the last of the five nuclear powers recognized by the treaty to do so. In 1995 the treaty was extended indefinitely. After Brazil acceded to the NPT in 1998 the only remaining non-nuclear-weapons state which had not signed was Cuba, which joined NPT (and the Treaty of Tlatelolco NWFZ) in 2002. Several NPT signatories have given up nuclear weapons or nuclear weapons programs.South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons program, allegedly with the assistance of Israel in the 1970s, and may have conducted a nuclear test in the Indian Ocean in 1979, but has since renounced its nuclear program and signed the treaty in 1991 after destroying its small nuclear arsenal after this, the remaining African countries signed the treaty. Several former Soviet Republics, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan, destroyed or transferred to Russia the nuclear weapons they transmitted from the Soviet Union.The former Soviet republics joined NPT by 1994. Successor states from the breakups of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia also joined the treaty soon after their independence. Montenegro and East Timor were the last countries to sign the treaty on their independence in 2006 and 2003 the only other country to sign in the 21st century was Cuba in 2002. The three Micronesian countries in Compact of Free Association with the regular army joined NPT in 1995, on with Vanuatu. Major South American countries Argentina, Chile, and Brazil joined in 1995 and 1998.Arabian Peninsula countries include Saudi Arabia and Bahrain in 1988, Qatar and Kuwait in 1989, UAE in 1995, and Oman in 1997. The detailed European states of Monaco and Andorra joined in 1995-6. Also signing in the nineties were Myanmar in 1992 and Guyana in 1993. See also North Korea and weapons of mass destruction, 2006 North Korean nuclear test,and Six-party talks North Korea ratified the treaty on December 12, 1985, but gave notice of withdrawal from the treaty on January 10, 2 003 following U. S. allegations that it had started an illegal enriched uranium weapons program, and the U.S. subsequently stopping fuel oil shipments under the Agreed Framework52 which had resolved plutonium weapons issues in 1994. 53 The withdrawal became effective April 10, 2003 making North Korea the first state ever to withdraw from the treaty. 54 North Korea had once before announced withdrawal, on March 12, 1993, but suspended that notice before it came into effect. 55 On February 10, 2005, North Korea publicly declared that it possessed nuclear weapons and pulled out of the six-party talks hosted by China to find a diplomatic solution to the issue. We had already taken the resolute action of pulling out of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and have manufactured nuclear arms for self-defence to cope with the Bush administrations evermore undisguised policy to assign and stifle the DPRK Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, a North Korean Foreign Ministry statement said re garding the issue. 56 Six-party talks resumed in July 2005. On September 19, 2005, North Korea announced that it would agree to a preliminary accord. Under the accord, North Korea would scrap all of its existing nuclear weapons and nuclear production facilities, rejoin the NPT, and readmit IAEA inspectors.The difficult issue of the supply of light water reactors to replace North Koreas victor nuclear power plant program, as per the 1994 Agreed Framework, was leftfield to be resolved in future discussions. 57 On the next day North Korea reiterated its known view that until it is supplied with a light water reactor it will not dismantle its nuclear arsenal or rejoin the NPT. 58 On October 2, 2006, the North Korean foreign minister announced that his country was planning to conduct a nuclear test in the future, although it did not state when. 59 On Monday, October 9, 2006 at 013528 (UTC) the United States geologic Survey detected a magnitude 4. 3 seismic event 70km (43mi) north of K imchaek, North Korea indicating a nuclear test. 60 The North Korean government announced shortly afterward that they had completed a successful underground test of a nuclear fission device. In 2007, reports from Washington suggested that the 2002 CIA reports stating that North Korea was developing an enriched uranium weapons program, which led to North Korea leaving the NPT, had overstated or misread the intelligence. 61626364 On the other hand, even apart from these press allegationswhich some critics worry could have been planted in order to justify the United States giving up trying to verify the disassembly of Pyongyangs uranium program in the face of North Korean intransigencythere remains some information in the public repose indicating the existence of a uranium effort. Quite apart from the fact that North Korean First Vice Minister Kang Sok Ju at one point admitted the existence of a uranium enrichment program, Pakistans then-President Musharraf revealed that the A.Q. Khan proliferation network had provided North Korea with a number of gas centrifuges designed for uranium enrichment. Additionally, press reports have cited U. S. officials to the effect that evidence obtained in dismantling Libyas WMD programs points toward North Korea as the source for Libyas uranium hexafluoride (UF6) which, if true, would mean that North Korea has a uranium renewal facility for producing feedstock for centrifuge enrichment. 65 The history of nuclear weapons chronicles the development of nuclear weapons.Nuclear weapons possess enormous destructive potential derived from nuclear fission or nuclear conjugation reactions. Starting with scientific breakthroughs of the 1930s made by the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom during World War II in what was called the Manhattan have to counter the assumed Nazi German atomic bomb project. In August 1945 two were dropped on Japan ending the Pacific War. An international team was dispatched to help work on the proje ct.The Soviet Union started development shortly thereafter with their own atomic bomb project, and not long after that both countries developed even more powerful fusion weapons called hydrogen bombs. There have been (at least) four major false alarms, the most recent in 1995, that resulted in the activation of either the USs or Russias nuclear attack early warning protocols. 1 North Korea Main article Ryanggang volley On September 9, 2004 it was reported by South Korean media that there had been a large explosion at the Chinese/North Korean border.This explosion left a crater visible by satellite and precipitated a large (2 mile diameter) mushroom cloud. The United States and South Korea quickly downplayed this, explaining it away as a forest fire that had nothing to do with the DPRKs nuclear weapons program. List of most powerful nuclear tests The following broken list contains nuclear tests conducted with a yield of over 10 Mt TNT. Date Yield Test mode Country Test station Re marks October 30, 1961 50 Mt air-drop Soviet Union Novaya Zemlya Tsar Bomba December 24, 1962 24. Mt air-drop Soviet Union Novaya Zemlya Test 219 August 5, 1961 21. 1 Mt air-drop Soviet Union Novaya Zemlya September 25, 1962 19. 1 Mt air-drop Soviet Union Novaya Zemlya February 28, 1954 15 Mt ground USA Bikini Atoll Castle Bravo may 5, 1954 13. 5 Mt sea surface USA Bikini Atoll Castle Yankee October 23, 1961 12. 5 Mt air-drop Soviet Union Novaya Zemlya March 26, 1954 11 Mt sea surface USA Bikini Atoll Castle Romeo November 1, 1952 10. 4 Mt ground USA Eniwetok Ivy Mike September 27, 1962 10 Mt air-drop SovietUnion Novaya Zemlya Background Korea has been a divided country since 1945, when it was liberated from the defeated Japan after World War II. The Korean War was fought from June 25, 1950, until an Armistice arranging was signed on July 27, 1953. As part of the Armistice, both sides, including U. S. forces, conduct military patrols within the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). citation needed In September 1956 the U. S. Chairman of the sound out Chiefs of Staff Admiral Radford told the U. S. Department of State that the U. S. ilitary intention was to introduce atomic weapons into Korea. From January 1957 the U. S. National Security Council considered, on President Eisenhowers instruction, and then agreed this. However, separate 13(d) of the Korean Armistice Agreement mandated that both sides should not introduce new types of weapons into Korea, so preventing the entering of nuclear weapons and missiles. The U. S. decided to unilaterally abrogate paragraph 13(d), breaking the Armistice Agreement, despite concerns by United Nations allies. 89 At a June 21, 1957, meeting of the Military Armistice Commission the U. S. informed the North Korean representatives that the U. N. Command no longer considered itself bound by paragraph 13(d) of the armistice. 10 In August 1957 NSC 5702/211 permitting the deployment of nuclear weapons in Korea was approved. 8 In J anuary 1958 nuclear armed proficient John missiles and 280mm atomic cannons were deployed to South Korea,12 a year later adding nuclear armed Matador cruise missiles with the range to reach China and the Soviet Union. 813 North Korea denounced the abrogation of paragraph 13(d) as an attempt to wreck the armistice agreement and turn Korea into a U. S. atomic warfare zone. At the U. N. General fictionalisation in November 1957 the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia condemned the decision of the United Nations Command to introduce nuclear weapons into Korea. 9 North Korea responded militarily by digging massive underground fortifications resistant to nuclear attack, and forward deployment of its conventional forces so that the use of nuclear weapons against it would endanger South Korean and U.S. forces as well. In 1963 North Korea asked the Soviet Union for help in developing nuclear weapons, but was refused. However, sort of the Soviet Union agreed to help North Korea develop a peace ful nuclear energy program, including the training of nuclear scientists. China later, after its nuclear tests, similarly rejected North Korean requests for help with developing nuclear weapons. 8 Tensions between North and South have run high on numerous occasions since 1953. The deployment of the U. S.Armys Second Infantry Division on the Korean peninsula and the American military presence at the DMZ are publicly regarded by North Korea as an occupying army. In several areas, North Korean and American/South Korean forces operate in extreme proximity to the border, adding to tension. This tension has led to numerous clashes, including the Axe Murder accident of 1976. In the early 1960s security concerns in the region and an sheer Soviet dismissal of these concerns hastened the DPRKs efforts to acquire the technology to produce nuclear weapons.In the wake of the student-led April 19 movement in 1960 that overthrew the South Korean president Rhee Syngman and the May 16, 1961, milit ary coup detat that brought General Park Chung-hee to power in the south, North Korea sought a mutual defense treaty with the Soviet Union and China. Soviet leaders reportedly did not even consider such a pact necessary, despite the military posture of the anti-communist Park regime, as long as the Soviets improved relations with the United States. 14 Perhaps the two most important factors in North Koreas attempts to obtain nuclear weapons and amaze militarily self-reliant were the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 and the prospect of a USJapanROK alliance following the 1965 establishment of diplomatic relations between the ROK and Japan. Kim Il-sung reportedly did not trust that the Soviets would live up to the conditions of the mutual defense pact and guarantee North Koreas security since they betrayed Castro by withdrawing nuclear missiles in an effort to improve relations with the United States.As a North Korean official explained to Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin in 1965, th e Korean leaders were sceptical of the CPSU and the Soviet government, they could not count on that the Soviet government would keep the obligations related to the defense of Korea it assumed in the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, Kim Il-sung said, and therefore they were compelled to keep an army of 700,000 and a police force of 200,000. In explaining the cause of such mistrust, the official claimed that the Soviet Union had betrayed Cuba at the time of the Caribbean crisis. 15 However, as recently declassified Russian, Hungarian, and East German materials confirm, no communist governments were willing to share the technology with the North Koreans, out of fear that they would share the technology with China. 16 With the collapse of the Soviet Union, North Korean leaders recognized the need for a new security relationship with a major power since Pyongyang could not afford to maintain its military posture.North Korean leaders therefore sought to forge a ne w relationship with the United States, the only power strong enough to step into the vacuum left by the collapse of the Soviet Union. From the early 1990s, throughout the first nuclear crisis, North Korea sought a non-aggression pact with the United States. The U. S. rejected North Korean calls for bilateral talks concerning a non-aggression pact, and stated that only six-party talks that also include the Peoples Republic of China, Russia, Japan, and South Korea are acceptable.The American stance was that North Korea had violated prior bilateral agreements, thus such forums lacked accountability. Conversely, North Korea refused to speak in the context of six-party talks, stating that it would only accept bilateral talks with the United States. This led to a diplomatic stalemate. On October 9, 2006, the North Korean government issued an announcement that it had successfully conducted a nuclear test for the first time. Both the United States Geological Survey and Japanese seismologica l authorities detected an earthquake with a preliminary estimated magnitude of 4. in North Korea, corroborating some aspects of the North Korean claims. 4 On November 19, 2006, North Koreas Minju Joson newspaper accused South Korea of building up arms in order to attack the country, claiming that the South Korean military is openly clamoring that the development and introduction of new weapons are to target the North. North Korea accused South Korea of conspiring with the United States to attack it, an accusation made frequently by the North and routinely denied by the United States. 17 The United Nations Security Council condemned the test in upshot 1874. On May 25, 2009, North Korea conducted a second test of a nuclear weapon at the same location as the original test (not confirmed). The test weapon was of the same magnitude as the atomic bombs dropped on Japan in the 2nd World War, (confirmed South Korea and Russia). At the same time of the test North Korea tested two short ran ge missiles (reported a South Korean News Network YTN not officially confirmed). In July 2011, Abdul Qadeer Khan, the key figure in Pakistans nuclear weapons evelopment, allegedly claimed that North Korea had gained access to Pakistans nuclear technology in the late 1990s by paying bribes to Pakistans senior military officials, a claim Pakistans senior officials disputed. Khan stated that he had personally helped transfer $3 million in gratuities to senior Pakistans military officers, though he neither provided any proofs to his claims. 18 Chronology of events Main article Timeline of North Korea nuclear program edit Plutonium This incision needs additional citations for verification. (October 2009) MWe experimental reactor at Yongbyon Nuclear scientific Research Center North Korea has had two operating reactors, both primed(p) at the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center. The older reactor is a Russian supplied IRT-2000 research reactor completed in 1967. 19 Uranium irrad iated in this reactor was used in North Koreas first plutonium interval experiments in 1975. 20 Nevertheless, the primary purpose of the reactor is not to produce plutonium and North Korea has had trouble acquiring enough fuel for constant operation. The U. S.Department of Energy estimated that this reactor could have been used to produce up to 12 kg of plutonium, thoug

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