Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Disability and Sport: Hypermasculinity Explored
Whether you prefer the Blade offset, the Man Without Legs, the Fastest Man on No Legs or Oscar Pistorius, this early days mans story allow for serve as a case get wind of mainstreaming in deterioration summercaters, specifically in the shoot Murderball. Pistorius is a 21-year-old southwestward Afri screwing below the knee amputee who won gold in the 100, two hundred and 400 meter events at the 2006 Paralympic Athletics World Championships. Pistorius was regarded as organism fast enough to earn a spot for the 200- and 400-meter sprints on second Africas Olympic team.Pistorius asked to be allowed to run in the Olympics if he would restrain for his countrys Olympic team. The world governing body body for track and field (IAAF) rule on 14 January 2008 invoking its rule 144. 2 which deals with technical aids that double-amputee sprinter Oscar Pistorius is unqualified to compete in the Beijing Olympics because his prosthetic racing legs give him a acquit warlike advantage (IAAF, 2008).The story of Pistorius swell up serve as the example of attempted mainstreaming of handicap in swashs, on the elite external front. Does the movie theatre Muderball make progress in mainstreaming check done merriment? The merits of the film will be analyzed through the lens of the family relationship gaming and disability, as well as its connotations for mainstreaming in disability. Murderball presents a laughable opportunity to reflect on representations of disability in the modern matrimony American context.The narrative of the film constructs a rugby wheelchair rivalry among Team U. S. A. , captained by Mark Zupan, and Team Canada, coached by Joe Soars. Murderball does exceptionally well in muddling the notions of people with disabilities as fragile and help slight, countering ableist assumptions about what persons with quadriplegia can accomplish. However, found on a close reading material of the film, it is suggested that Murderball accomplishes this disruption through the exultation of ableist, sexist and heterosexist tropes.The following is a critique the films kink of the relationship between competitive planetary sport settings, disability, and masculinity by drawing on anti-prescriptive politics. It is proposed that recuperations of normative identity in Murderball rely on a jingoistic and violent moral authority, while melodic themeing themselves to the constraints of normalcy. Due to its popularity and its subject matter, the film presents a unique opportunity to reflect on representations of disability, through the unique lens of sport, in the contemporary North American context.In word-painting alter men participating in a highly danger involving contact sport in intensely belligerent nationalist settings, the film differs from the majority of North American cinematic portrayals of disability. As Irving Zola, in his absent Pieces A Chronicle of Living With a Disability, points out that the use of the construct o f danger was questionable, for a basic human rightis the right to administerrisks, a right which a quadreplegic does not surrender. Murderball serves to humanize disability in this regard.It was compelling to undertake a critical examination of the film that Murderball working exceptionally well to disrupt notions of people with disabilities as fragile and helpless, and that disability was humanized through the story presented. Kurt Lindemann and James Cherney (2008) similarly argue that wheelchair rugby is it ego a communicative act that sends a complex message to both the company of sport and our broader social collectives that counters ableist assumptions about what persons with quadriplegia can accomplish (p. 08). Within the clear up of disability studies, premises of disability have evolved in the last several(prenominal) decades. Nigel Thomas and Andy Smith (2009) note that there has been a shift from medical, separate definitions and ideologies of disability to more soci ally constructed explanations of disability, which place more responsibility for disability on mainstream society (p. 23). The medical model, so far, is not without its merits. Disability has dumbfound a topic in sport sociology with increasing depth in recent years.Themes that have comm solo been addressed include disability sport policies, governing bodies, and the opportunities for exponentiation they provide media portrayals of disability sport the ways that athletes identities be negotiated through medical and social models of disability and the role sports bestow in managing the stigmatization of athletes with disabilities. Within the study of the sociology of sport masculinity has become a dominant topic of discussion. David Howe and Carwyn Jones (2006) consider the classification of disabled athletes into competitive classes in amateur associations and Paralympic competition.They claim that the International Paralympic Committee has marginalized the disability sports confederation by controlling classification systems and imposing restrictions on opportunities for equitable sports practice. Their defense is, that this holy terrorens the ideology of Paralympism while ignoring the empowerment of non-elite athletes (Howe & Jones, 2006, p. 44). While providing an analysis of sports structure, choices, and fairness for participants of all abilities, Howard Nixon (2007) advocates for the creation of diverse sports opportunities for people with disabilities.My critique of Murderball does not extend to the sports governing body, or policies that effect the sport, however the case study of Oscar Pistorius serves this exact purpose. How do individuals with disabilities negotiate their identities through sport? Both social and medical models of disability affect disability sport participants identity formation, while succeeder in foreign disability sport whitethorn lead to positive subjectivity, changed self-understanding, and an increased sense of per sonal empowerment.Much question of participation in disability sports at the school age indicates that tangible activity is a normalizing experience for these children as it facilitates friendships and social identity (Taub & Greer, 2000). The problems of normative aspects of the representation of athletes with disabilities in Murderball demonstrates that people with profound disabilities can be militant and athletic. It must be noted that all of the people with disabilities depicted in Murderball are elite athletes in international competition who are shown reservation aggressive plays on the court and whose off court commentary is beat of macho bravado.The limited representation of people with disabilities in popular films may be partially attri thated to the pursuit of profit. In attempt to appeal to the largest hearing possible and to increase box speckle and rental sales, narratives are filed with homogenizing representations and saleable themes. Normative narratives allow the maximum projected audience to relate to the story, by relaying common themes such as normative masculinity Murderball subscribes to this familiar system of rules by placing the athletes at the center of a very conservative political project.The film positions quad-rugby players as worthy subjects of the documentary according to their ability to enroll in a sport that requires affirmations fitting with normative masculinity such as power, violence, hypersexuality, and strength. Meanwhile, The players contentions with stereotypes associated with disability is unfortunately overtaken by a seeingly ageless reiteration of the athletes capacity for athletic competition, and this is demonstrated through their sport participation and physicality.This situates the athletes conformity to hegemonic masculinity in that the athletic staminate body has been a mark of power and moral superiority for those who bear it (Dutton in Dworkin Wachs, 2000, p. 49). The first step scene ef fectively illustrates the ethos of the film in this respect. Mark Zupan undresses and gets himself ready for a workout. As he begins to dress in athletic shorts, he removes his garment revealing a defined white, muscular torso, his physical straw man doesnt seem weak or fragile. He is clearly capable of dressing himself, the absence seizure of a sound track is noted as uncharacteristic for contemporary North American cinema.This leaves an uncomfortable silence as accompaniment for an inner moment rarely depicted on camera. The mere fact that he has an obvious impairment and uses a wheelchair is also atypical for popular cinema. This unsounded visual representation provides context for the films opening attribute and sets up the primary subject of the film. The uncomfortable image is contrasted with Mark Zupans capacity to be independent and fill the screen with his presence. His large fearless tattoo is featured in the center of the picture as he lifts his leg with his hands.Z upan assembles a wheelchair highlighting its mechanical efficiency with close up shots of nuts, bolts, spokes and a battered metal surface covered with an American thole sticker. An electric motor makes noise, as the wheels are pumped up. The name Zupan is affix to the pump with athletic tape. Although he does not represent completely normative masculinity as a man with a disability, the early(a) aspects of his presence in this scene his strength, his ability to perform complex technical tasks self sufficiently, and his loud tattoo and goatee are symbolic of a strong virile physicality.His embodiment also works to code his non-conformity as marketable. On a surface level, then, the films popularity can be considered a success for disability cultural activist movement. It is an authentic portrayal of a disabled subculture that avoids the traditional narrative traps of umpteen mainstream disability films. The audience is immediately tell to check their well- intentioned sympath ies at the door, along with any preconceived notions about the goody of the disabled body. Disability sexuality, a taboo and uncomfortable ground for umpteen non-disabled viewers, is reclaimed with a vengeance. hence, one of the difficulties in analyzing Murderball is that its most radical features are simultaneously its most conventional. Thus, while non-disabled viewers may find their assumptions and stereotypes challenged by the masculine sexual bravado of Murderballs quadriplegic rugby players, there may be a simultaneous sense of relief at the sheathed endurance of male heterosexual privilege. Heterosexuality no longer functions as evidence that a disabled masculinity has finally been cured instead, it is the virilization of disability that holds the power to rehabilitate heteronormativity from its own gender trouble.Therefore, Murderball serves as an evoke case study of the intersection between disability studies and masculinity. The popularity of this film demonstrates a powerful cultural backlash against representational histories that have conflated feminization, male homosexuality, and disability. The film successfully remasculinizes its subjects, celebrating disability and strength, resulting in the inevitable hypermasculine body. Ironically, the rhetoric of masculinity in Murderball is also the source of its anatgonism. The films crip critique of ableness relies on repeated heteromasculine performances.A close reading of the film reveals masculinity as the visual mechanism through which disability is beginning to find its place on the contemporary cultural stage. Murderball harnesses the normalizing powers of masculinity, presenting a narrative of gender that helped to generate mainstream appeal in the box office and, more importantly, mainstream approval of a stigmatized social identity. A question that must be mentioned is what does the film Muderball mean for quadripelegic women? The same logic that masculinizes the quadriplegic or ill ma n also functions to both masculinize and desexualize the quadriplegic or paraplegic woman.Disabled women, and particularly disabled female athletes, are not celebrated as having been liberated from oppressive conventions of gender, nor are they given access to normative femininity. Indeed the few images of disabled women that the documentary presents function more as a set of brief snapshots that, while easy to miss, momentarily interrupt the temporal, and practically verbal, logic through which these boys become men. These more or less static images haunt the films perimeter, a subtle threat to the coherence of a narrative that celebrates quadriplegia as the natural outcome of the hypermasculine male body.The concept of mainstreaming has been prominently constant in the world of disability for many years, while its definition has evolved substantially. Mainstreaming, initially referring to merely placing individuals with disabilities in regular classes with able-bodied individuals , was introduced in the 1960s (Reynolds, 1962). The majority of professionals in the disability field did not accept mainstreaming. It was mostly regarded as a statement of what could or should be possible (Aufesser, 1991).Initially, the premise of mainstreaming only included integrating those with mild disabilities and unquestionably not those with physical disabilities. During the movement of deinstitutionalization in the 1970s, the definition of mainstreaming underwent a material shift. The new interpretation of mainstreaming is highlighted by the Cascade System, a model first proposed by Reynolds in 1962 and amended and reintroduced by Deno in 1970. This revolution, of sorts, gave way to new impairment such as normalization, least restrictive alternative, and continuum of service.The Cascade System can be characterized as a two-box system in which parallel but separate studyal programs for regular and special education operate at heart school buildings. The implementation o f the Cascade system was difficult at best, and free a lot of the time. The model helped create understanding and support round a better system that facilitates tailoring of treatment to individual inevitably rather than a system for sorting out children so they will fit conditions designed according to group standards not necessarily sufficient for the particular case (Deno, 1970, p. 35). The philosophy behind this model is commendable and is the only logical framework within which to develop a system of mainstreaming. Therefore, Murderball has already been mainstreamed in some regards. The excitement and intensity of the sport inveigle a large following, able-bodied and disabled alike. The stories of Pistorius and Mark Zupan extend beyond bionic runners and wheelchair rugby. Several other way outs arose as a result of the Pistorius controversy.Can the UN chemical formula on the rights of persons with disabilities, the newest human rights instrument for people with disabilit ies, give some counsel? By invoking the rule 144. 2 and dealing with technical aids for Olympic, Paralympic, other-lmypic, and international sport, it opened the dialogue for further progress. The future of enhancements and their impact on the Olympics, Paralympics, other-lympic, and international sport has not been thoroughly researched, and it is expected that an increase work into this issue will emerge.Another interesting dynamic that is touched upon is the relationship between the Olympics, Paralympics, other lympics and international sports. Will we be exposed to any changes in the relationship between the lympics due to the Pistorius case? Bottom of Form Deno, E. (1970). Special education as developmental capital. Exceptional Children, 37, mildly retardedIs much of it justifiable? 229-237. Works Cited Dworkin, S. , Wachs, F. (2000). The Morality/Manhood Paradox. In J. McKay (Ed. ), Masculinities, gender relations, and sport. (pp. 4765).Thousand Oaks, CA Sage. Gramsci, A. (1 971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Hoare, Q. Nowell Smith, J. (Trans. Eds. ). New York International Publishers. Howe, P. D. , Jones, C. (2006). Classification of disabled athletes (Dis)empowering the Paralympic practice community. Sociology of version Journal, 23(1), 2946. IAAF Oscar Pistorius Independent Scientific study concludes that cheetah prosthetics offer clear mechanical advantages, International Association of Athletics Federations, 14 Jan 2008, available athttp//www. aaf. org/news/newsId=42896,printer. html Kurt Lindemann and James L. Cherney. Communicating In and Through Murderball masculinity and Disability in Wheelchair Rugby. Western Journal of Communication(2008) 107-25. Lead Article. Taub, D. E. , Greer, K. R. (1998). Sociology of credence revisited Males with physical disabilities participating in sport and physical fitness activity. degenerate Behavior, 19(3), 279302. Thomas, N. , Smith, A. (2009). Disability, sport and society An introduction. New York Routledge.