Sunday, March 10, 2019
Are Liberty and Equality Compatible?
Two Concepts of Liberty be the distinction in the midst of tyrannical independence and disallow self-reliance. He defined positive liberty as the ability to fulfill genius stimulate potential. This Is typified by the wording l am my own master. For congressman, if I actually compliments to become an economist, then I would be positively warrant if non discouraged. Negative liberty is defined as immunity from external chasteness. The Implications of Positive and Negative Liberty A sketch by Eddie Izard authorise Cake or death4 offers to hoi polloi exactly that. We man power think that be fully wanton besides horizontal the nigh ardent of fitness fanatics would of course pick cake. Alternatively, a fe bed, violent and remorseless highwayman offering you your capital or your Life5 whitethorn illustrate the point.Assuming that we know the highwayman not to be bluffing, not even Scrooge himself would keep his m whizy. Whilst the in a higher place devil example s are possible to envisage, It Is stimulate that they are not part of your average bon ton and a more than than realistic example may be discreet. umteen prostitutes fire and do hate their jobs, however, they often fuck off no alternative to it, even when not forced to do so. in that location are several grounds why a prostitute would continue to re main(prenominal) in the trade. A study by London South Bank University identified 9 barriers to exist including medicine addiction, lack of education and brotherly stigma.The implications are that we are roughly whiles face up with decisions where there is only one legalistic possible option. Indeed, a de bourneinist would go as utmost to argue that we are faced all the time with decisions where there is only one possible outcome and we do not hold in drop provide at all and everything is in article of belief predicable. It is shed light on that we earth-closetnot mean free to mean negatively free. However, the co nsideration that granting immunity Is possible becomes much less tenuous when one considers be positively free.It Is defined as the ability to maximize ones potential, given the cur study verbalise of resources available to people. Positive liberty Is the possibility of acting ? or the occurrence of acting ? in such a way as to guide on control of ones conduct and realize ones fundamental t all(prenominal)er, then he would be positively free if he is able to realism his aims. In short, he is able to maximize his potential. A misconception of Equality Some of the more donnish among us could argue that passableity is possible. Certainly in areas such as mathematics this is professedly. A unsophisticated example such as 8 +7=1 5 shows that get evenity cigaret exist.However, it is very travel by that this is not what one way by equivalence in this sense. Many would assume that perhaps equivalence should be defined then as the relate apportioning of resources. However, in the context of animal ethics, Peter vocalizer argued that it this kind of equality is impossible and should not be defined as such it searchs romantic and perhaps immoral for this to be the case. human beings have interests in mountain-climbing and skiing, in seeing the world and sampling different cultures. cattle like lush pasture and shelter from harsh weather.Hence to deny human the right to travel from outside Devon would be to restrict their rights significantly it would not be a significant restriction for the rights of cows. 8 However, to avoid complications, we shall not concern ourselves with the epic of equality betwixt animals and military personnel. patronage this, it can quiet down be applied in the context of between Just homo. For example, it is impractical or pointless to grant women the right to pro aver examinations or to evenly allocate cricket bats among footballers and cricketers alike. A critique of Singers claim above could be done by using the following simple example.Imagine dickens people, Sam and Simon. Sam inherited a large estate, and is very richesy, disdain a lack of talent, de terminal figureination or ambition. Alternatively, Simon despite being intelligent and ambitious received a poor quality of education and comes from a low income family. Although Singer has debunked the argument that equality means the equal apportioning of resources, to more this would still seem unfair. However, Singer offers a counter marriage offer where the impetus of his argument is equal precondition. This is a broadly abstraction term but can be applied to many contemporary and applicable examples.For example, laws regarding maternity and paternity leave or resolving conflict between settlers to an area and to indigenous people. Most significantly, Singers example could be applied in the context of macro sparings, in that whilst equality is not honeymoon with kind mobility and meritocracy, it can work in close conjunction with the cardinal. aver of spirit out front examining the compatibility of the devil in a society, it seems prudent to examine whether the two can be compatible without a society, in a State of Nature and synonymous to many as a dyspepsia.A state of nature is a hypothetical thought investigate designed to investigate what a pre-societal life would be like for people. In his Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes posited the claim that, a free man is he that in those things which by his strength and wit he is able to do is not hindered to do what e hath the bequeath to do9, alluding to liberty in its negative sense. He argued, that in the state of nature, liberty did not exist, because actions were hindered by fear of death and fear of the power of others. Despite saying that freedom can only truly exist chthonian a soereign, Hobbes alludes to liberty in the negative sense.Indeed, others have interpreted his whole kit for people However, people are free in that they interpretation of his own work seems desperately counter intuitive. However, Hobbes has only discussed how we are not free in the negative sense. However, this may not be the case for positive freedom. We are free to maximize our potential. There is no State or Government to restrict us in any way possible. Hobbes excessively comments that men are by nature equal in their powers, as even the weakest has strength enough to kill the strongest, either by brain-teaser machination, or by confederacy with others, that are in the alike(p) peril as himself. 10 One can therefore conclude that humans are free and equal in a State of Nature, an abstract thought experiment. However, this is neither desirable nor permanent. It is a poor quality of freedom and equality in that the standard. In a State of Nature being free and equal means that we are free and equal to be violent against each other and live the solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short life1 1 that Hobbes so described.Bringing abstract possibleness into reality We can sanction that these two arguments so that liberty and equality are theoretically possible, however, the research is now is whether these arguments have practical implications. However, what does it mean to be human? Humans are naturally social beings with our own societal friendships, families and relationships. As Hummed pointed out, social contract theory is an unhelpful fiction, because social organization is natural for us is natural. Indeed, a very clear example would be that we all mystify up, learn values, language and develop knowledge through parenting, and through social interaction and as a result through discipline, leadership and rules. Therefore, a state of nature essential be fiction. Furthermore, equality is referred to as equal rumination, however in a State of Nature, there is no presidency present to equally consider. Therefore, one has to regress to the equal allocation of resources, and Hobbes argues that resources are shared equally, in that people have roughly the same amount of intelligence, muscle and weaponry.However, the equal allocation of resources is something this thesis is trying to revert from. A Utopia? There are tercet branches of ethics, utilitarianism, deonto sensible and virtue. And in all three of them liberty and equality are highly desirable. For example, given that Utilitarianism has its definition coined as the maximum amount of happiness for the maximum amount of people13, and one does not need to Justify for the purposes of this essay that liberty and equality are most often highly desirable in society.It would therefore seem prudent to examine a utilitarianism society, and examine whether liberty and equality may be possible. In Aloud Huxley Brave New World, a caste system is depicted with the inhabitants ranked from alpha through to epsilon. 14 Despite height, appearance and Jobs available being dependent on what classify one is, each person is conditioned before birth (though that is an contrasted word to use) and each class is perfectly content to remain in their class and does not aspire to be of any other class.Many would repulsed by this state and whilst it seems desperately counter-intuitive, both freedom and equality can be binded. Indeed, some would consider the caste system to be not far short of slavery, omitting clearly not very equal. However, equality as equal consideration is allowed for, each individual conditioned with their happiness being viewed in the same equal expiration that they are positively free and are able to maximize their potential in their designated class. 15 It seems then that in this example, liberty and equality are compatible.Whilst this fictitious society leaves a striation to be desired, it may be useful to have a facial gesture at how this society was reached and see if this can be paralleled in reality. The logical conclusion of capitalist economy There may be faults with the feasibility of a utopia as well. Huxley a ssumes that Brave New World is the logical end of capitalism. all(prenominal) activity is aimed at continued consumption, for example the slogan of ending is snap off than mending16. All obstacles to consumption are removed. Mass production, God and individuation are institutionalized. In order to maintain this freedom, the means of production essentialiness be controlled.Utopia translates from Greek meaning no place. 17 Essentially, it means that it does not exist. While there are certain(a)ly parallels with society, this is not how capitalism leave alone end, and this is for four inter get togethered drives. commencemently, the vox populi of illogical mass production of humans is deeply concerning and a vital premise to the Huxley argument. One can sort of reasonably assert the claim that this depart never happen. Secondly, there is a lack of relationships, in the book the notion of family and parenthood is treated with stupor and disdain, and as a result society is equal for the reasons given above.However, the notion of family and parenthood does exist, and this can have drastic consequences for the logical conclusion of capitalism. With nepotism and the solicitation of capital there is a case that there is a slickness to contagious capitalism. However, this forget be discussed in more detail later. only if most importantly, the logical conclusion to capitalism does not take into consideration how human beings are not always rational. Long before the term behavioral economics was coined, Huxley assumed that Homo Economics18 would prevail. However, people do not always make decisions that maximize their welfare.A very simple argument will show this point to be correct this is know as the Gamblers Fallacy. 19 When at a rou allowte table, people will often assume that if at a table, the roulette wheel has shown to be the color red the previous six times, then it is more probably to e on the seventh spin. However, a simple math experiment w ith a roulette wheel or a computer will show this to be incorrect, and statistical theory on independence provides the abstract thought behind this. redden it were rational to Join this kind of society, the likelihood of this misadventure is not secure.A Thought Experiment With the exception of a conclusion, the rest of this thesis, will analyses and evaluate reasons why freedom and equality may not be practical in society today. A fully free state shall be assumed, and the question will be posed asking if equality can be produced as a by- product alongside. Finally, the thesis will question the aforementioned assumption in two different ways. The confidence of a Fully Free State To many this seems like capitalism. However, capitalism is far too broad and can name suggests implies that the state is convoluted and does not prohibit freedom.Laissez-fairer capitalism might be more prudent as a result. We shall now assume that a fully free state but be one determined by food comm ercialize forces, determined by supply and demand in order for me to be positively free and maximize citizens potential. The First Reason How Liberty Upsets Patterns This objective is not original, it is on page 160 of Robert Nicks book Anarchy State ND Utopia, the heading alludes to an often quoted example of a successful hoops called hunter Wilt Chamberlain, which is pertinent. In this world, everyone earns exactly the same salary and money is distributed evenly.At each home game, he receives 25 cents from every person playacting the game. To the customers, this seems reasonable he is very good at basketball. If one billion watch him play during the season, Chamberlain has $250,000. He has more money than someone else. 20 Let us extend the analogy but so that everyone else earns a sum of $25,000 a year. It seems that although Chamberlain may have more money than everyone else it is not a problem, because this equality can include a meritocracy and equality is defined as equ al consideration.This might seem Justified because of marginal productivity theory some would say that Chamberlain works harder and is more productive so he should receive more money than anyone else. However, there are two issues with this theory. The initiatory is that the facts do not support it. As the recession went on bankers such as Fred Goodwin continued to receive bonuses, despite bringing banks to their knees. Even though they were worse than useless, hey were still receiving money despite having a negative marginal productivity theory.Despite The Royal Bank of Scotland (RUBS) going bankrupt, Fred Goodwin receives a IEEE,OHO grant from RUBS. 21 Secondly, despite Wilt Chamberlain earning ten times more than everyone else is it true that he works ten times harder in order to win his wealthiness? The serve is most likely no. In snapper there is a sense of disproportion to the extent of the meritocracy. There is a clear opportunity cost no one was forced to watch him pl ay basketball. They could have spent their money on everything as mundane from tea bags to headphones.This presents some issues, he now has far more money than anyone else does, and this to many seems unequal. In the I-J, the staggering sums of money that footballers earn is a proponent in an argument for inequality- how can It be fair that Wayne Rooney earns more in one week than the average person earns in 10 years? and this is unequal. The Second Reason Rent Seeking Economies It is necessary to delineate between two different types of economy, wealth generating and rent pursuit.Wealth generating refers to ways of earning money whilst change magnitude the output of the economy at the same time. A quintessential example would be innovation such as Tyson vacuum cleaners. Rent seeking is defined as when a company, organization or individual uses their resources to obtain an economic gain from others without reciprocating any of the benefits back into society through wealth creati on. 22 Here, a useful example would be through a usefully entitled The Locust and the Bee. 23 Here, the locust is analogous to the rent seeking economy and the bee the wealth generating economy.The economist Joseph Zeitgeist has argued that rent-seeking is a large indorser to income inequality in the United States through lobbying for presidential term policies hat let the wealthy and powerful get income, not as a bribe for creating wealth, but by grabbing a larger share of the wealth that would differently have been produced without their effort. As Paul Grumman points out, most of the richest 1% in the world are oecumenically not the innovators such as Bill provide or Mark Suckering, but generally those with a much raze marginal productivity, such as Fred Goodwin or C.Douglas McMillan. Furthermore, despite these low marginal productivities, their income, (in America at least) has increased as seen in the graph below. The trey Reason The Fall of The American Dream? As Jose f Zeitgeist points out, Paul Ryan do a speech saying that despite the US Gin coefficient rising, what is really the most significant is equality of opportunity. 24 The question, is can there be equality of opportunity. It is true that the Rags to Riches story as examples well record across the world with everyone from Will. . Am to Opera Winfred, but as Zeitgeist asserts, the reason they are so well documented is because they are so rare. presumptuousness that, the question is do we always have to have an inequality of opportunity, and the answer to that is yes. The first premise that all else rests on is that equality of opportunity must rest on not only a good but equal education. Given that equal opportunity largely manifests itself in a meritocracy. The second premise of the argument is that having an equal education is unattainable.Even if private schools were completely abolished, if money was spent on students exactly proportional to their needs and the topper teachers we re distributed around the country exactly proportional to where they should be then equality of opportunity may not work for one key reason chaos theory. The tiniest of changes in an education can lead to drastic consequences, for example, a certain book could be pivotal in attending a place at a prestigious university. Moreover, despite a alike(p) education, differences in education at home are beyond the states control.The First Critique Of The Assumption However, Zeitgeist says, Markets dont exist in a vacuum25. Indeed, they must be shaped, mainly through the laws of that country. In the USA in the brass gave holders of derivatives priority over bankruptcy. This was seen in its bail out of insurer alga to the tune of $1 ban. This creates a heads I win, tails you lose situation. The first reason why laissez-fairer capitalism does not work is because the way that the market exists is though legislature which undermines what laissez-fairer capitalism sets out to achieve.The Secon d Critique of the Assumption- The maturation of Capital in the 21st Century The idea that inherited wealth will always grow faster than earned wealth is the main impetus of Thomas Pickets book Capital in the 21st Century. Pickett argues that as captures in the expression r g, where r is the rate of return to wealth and g is the economic growth rate. Other things being equal, faster economic growth will monish the importance of wealth in a society, whereas slower growth will increase it. However, there are no natural forces pushing against the steady concentration of wealth.Only a burst of quick growth (from technological progress or rising population) or government intervention can be counted on to keep economies from returning to the patrimonial capitalism. Furthermore, demographics can influence this point. Writes Pickett, Consider a world in which each couple has ten children, it is better as a general rule to not count on too much on inherited wealth, because the Emily wealth will divide by ten with each new generation. In such a society the people will have wealth softenedinished by 10 each generation. 26 Therefore, given that fertility rates are locateing all over the world, this means that wealth will be more concentrated in the future. Regardless of the graph below, some people having more money than others can still be equal, and feel that Pickett makes a generalization as a result. However, he argues that people having more money often leads to a fall in social mobility and as a result, increased inequality of opportunity. There is now a event to patrimonial capitalism which is known more in anatomyally as crony capitalism.Given how equality is defined as equal consideration and social mobility is key, he argues that not only do some people have more money than others but social mobility is at an all time low. 27 Conclusion It seems that practically, in some influence of Utopia equivalent to A Brave New World or in a State of Nature, the two m ay both be possible. However, in feasible ideologies, there are impossible. This is because how in a free society, issues. However, the link between equality being defined as equal consideration and equality as the equal allocation of resources is tenuous.The argument of chaos theory may be weak, as people may still be free in that they can maximize their positive liberty in that they can still maximize their potential. Chaos theory only affects the extent to which potential can be reached not the other way around. In order for this thesis to be stronger, the link between the two warrants foster exploration. Perhaps an exploration of Aristotle opinion on equality might be useful to unpick what equality means, as it depends how we look at equality. evaluator is equality, but only for equals, ND Justice is inequality, but only for those who are unequal28.This needs further exploration. It seems that practically, in some form of Utopia akin to A Brave New World or in a State of Nat ure, the two may both be possible. However, in feasible ideologies, these are marvelous. This is because how in a free society, issues. However, the arguments mainly take the form of an inductive argument as shown below. 1. This example (from Nonionic) shows that under a certain societal ideology the two are incompatible, 2. This example (from Pickett) shows the same 3. Therefore, the two are incompatible This is akin to Black Swan Theory, identified by Massif Tale.If one sees a series of the case. Critically, its implications are that no one argument, shows the two to be inversely proportional to each other for example, as you have more freedom, you get less equality. Whilst the arguments themselves do not prove that as the two are incompatible, they very much support the arguments. Perhaps further discourse is needed to prove through a deductive argument that the two are incompatible. Although the simple fact that social mobility is falling, especially as countries become ore a nd more privatized, implies that the two cannot work together.However, there is a dim ray of hope, as many of the arguments offer suggestions to solutions to solve these problems. Pickett himself proposes a forward-moving income assess of up to 80% and a global wealth tax of 2%. Furthermore, a 100% inheritance tax is something that others have suggested. 29 On the other hand, these suggestions are highly controversial and are unlikely to be enforced. Whilst, the two are compatible theoretically, on the current flight of stairs of society, it seems hugely unlikely that liberty will occur in society in the future.