Sunday, March 3, 2019
Higher Education and Poverty Reduction Among the Youth
HIGHER attainment AND POVERTY REDUCTION AMONG THE YOUTH BY OKUNOLA, PHILIP OLAYIDE (Ph. D), ONYENE. V. E(Ph. D. )(emailprotected com) SUBAR, S. TAYO. ASHIRU, AL-MAHROOF OLASEEWO (emailprotected ca) PAPER PRESENTED AT THE 8TH REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH POLICY NETWORK VENUE INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR tropic AGRICULTURE (IITA), IBADAN AUGUST, 2008 ABSTRACT rearing in Nigeria and high(prenominal) foster geezerhoodal activity in particular, are natural to the construction of a knowledge economy and worth season cabaret in any nation hence, from a global perspective, sparing, political, technical and loving victimizations are increasingly driven by the advancement and application of knowledge, skills and socialization acquired in the process of this informing. This paper presents an empirical study of higher training and impoerishment decrement among the young person victimisation the University of Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 330 offspring orbit c omprised the sample drawn from the eight faculties on campus.Three hypotheses were formuformer(a)d and tested victimisation chi-square statistical incision at 0. 05 direct of signifi corporationce. The major findings are that higher education is signifi clear buoyt in exposing the youth to natural endowment discovery, sensible and cerebral armment among the youth and has high potency decline for impoverishment reduction among the youth. Introduction The sink in of the 21st century has brought profound and fundamental changes to economics, technology, politics, culture, morals, social values and ethics. Globalization is the driving force in all in all these changes.While globalisation has induced the collapse of time and space, it has in any case expanded opportunities and challenges for individuals and for nations and has sidelined the weak and unprepared. Anya (2002). The projection of the university education bequeath then be to empower the youths to be subje ct to cope with the dynamics of globalization. Consequently the university must swallow an organic gene linkage with the industrial and economic environment to contri onlye to economic growth of the nation. Education has for long been recognized and accepted as a panacea for Nigerias ills and woes. Particularly so is the case of higher education.Stup finishous amount of money and otherwise resources, even up though in seemly are expended on the universities annually. Unarguably al stakeholders look up to the universities as the nations beacon of hope, inflammation and elegantization. For this reason, besides over 50 public universities are springing up all over the nooks and crannies of the country (Ejiogu and Onyene, 2006). Nigeria s philosophy of education is aimed at education that foster the worth and development of the individual, for each individuals sake, and for the general development of the smart set thither is need for authority so as to break the shackles of wa nt for requisite ignition.Are the Nigerian youths hopeful? Do they see the trip? Are they civilized? The quest and agitation for the empowerment of the youth and t successor liberation through higher education is fast becoming almost hysterical presumptuousness the often reported cases of incessant strike actions by lecturers, miss or in fitted infrastructures in the universities, brain drain, and so on, within the university system. case abound when university graduates are not employable in the elbow grease market.The bureau becomes worri nearly and intriguing with the jet-speed rate of opening up of new universities with its henchman alleged unemployment of unqualified staff, and stragglers from older universities. The Concept of high Education and mendicancy high education means different things to many people, only if the design is perceived to be the like. It is the type of education that focuses on professionalization, by empowering the partaker of this level of education with skills that are not necessarily the function of bollock educational process.This type of skills emanates from savants interaction with their peers, teachers and other members of their academic community. Though these experiences that vergeinate into skills makes students sojourn in their academic environment a complete one, which necessitates the truism passage through the school without the school passing through the student The proponents of this statement are of the opinion that students who passed through the school without the school passing through them have learnt merely partially regardless of their grades at the end of their academic pursuit in the university, thereby limiting their opportunities.This is corroborated by ethereal 2005, who opined that leanness can only be eliminated if the students to whom implicit promises are beingness by urging them to attend school actually receive some tangible benefit for their years spent in school. Higher education embroils teaching, research and social profit activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergrad level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education and the graduate school). Higher education generally involves make up towards a head level or behind for distributor point qualification.In most developed countries a high proportion of the tribe (up to 50%) now enters higher education is therefore every cardinal to matter economy, both as a source of trained and better personnel for the rest of the economy. Schofield, K. 1999. Higher education is based on supposititious expertise. It might be contrasted with higher vocational education, which concentrates on both traffic pattern and theory. Deciding to further education and attain a degree tends to modify many aspects of life.People with college degrees tend to earn much money and salary increases over the years are more substantial than for those that do not have a col lege degree or university degree. Additionally, people that have a college degree are less analogously to go through long bouts of unemployment. so far attaining certifications and/or degrees cerebrate to your field can yield better jobs and ongoing opportunities (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). University qualifications need to match employers and labour market requirements as nigh as possible.Mass unemployment of university graduates is the resolving where university programmes and the labour market are at variance. The essence of relevance, utilitarian criteria based on prospects of income generation at completion of a programme should be uppermost in the programmes provided by universities. The idea of act knowledge for its own sake or of the sake of engaging in a programme of study given a passion for learning in a particular subject area give count acquaint if it is remembered at all. (Roberts, 1999).Youth (in the developed being) like all identities, is a cultural ly relative apocalypse whose meanings and applications are specific to certain times and disclosure whose meaning and applications are specific to certain times and locales. For those living in present-day westerly cultures, the term youth refers to persons who are no longitudinal children and not yet adults. In a strictly legal sense, the term is typically applied to a person from the time of their early teens until a point between 16 and 21, after which the person is legally an adult. As an adult they are endowed priviledges such as the right to vote and consume alcohol e. c. used colloquially, however, the term generally refers to a broader, more ambiguous field of reference from somatogenicly adolescent to those in their late 20s, the United Nations, for example, defines youth as people between the ages of 15 and 24 years inclusive (United Nations Education and Scientific peasantren Organisation, 2002b). Poverty refers to a maculation and process of serious deprivation or deficiency of resources and material necessary for living within a minimum standard conducive to valet dignity and well being (NEST, 1991). Poverty connotes deprivation of the means of subsistence. The manifestation of mendicancy, i. inadequate distribution of resources, access to staple social services like education and health, food scarcity, low life expectancy, and lack of participation in decision making processes (Braun, 1999, Carrey 1999 ground Bank 1999 Web et al 1992Ravnborg, 1996). For the break up of this paper beggary is viewed as deprivation of common necessities that determine the tone of voice of life, which include food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, and may as well as include the deprivation of opportunities to learn, to obtain better employment to escape poverty and/or to enjoy the respect of fellow citizens.This can be measured in terms of absolute or relative poverty. Absolute poverty refers to a set standard which is consistent in over tim e between countries. An example of an absolute measurement would be the office of the race take less food than is required to sustain the human body, which may hold out to extreme poverty. United Nations 2002 report defines extreme poverty as poverty that kills, depriving individuals of the means to stay alive in the face of hunger, disease and environmental hazards.This is further substantiated by Moore (2007) in his report for the human Bank, that extreme poverty implies living on less than 1 dollar per day, and moderate poverty as less than $2 a day. The proportion of the developing worlds population living in extreme economic poverty fell from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001. Looking at the period 1981 2001, the percentage of the worlds population living on less than $1 per day has halved.Analysis of social aspects of poverty links conditions of scarcity to aspects of the distribution of resources and power in a society and recognizes that poverty may be a functio n of the diminished electrical capacity of people to live the kinds of lives they value. The social aspects of poverty may include lack of access to information, education, health care, or political power. Poverty may also be understood as an aspect of unequal social term and inequi send back social relationships, experienced as exclusion, dependency, and diminished capacity to participate, or to develop meaningful connections with other people in society.Statement of the Problem The growth and development of this country go out to a large extent be determined by quality, in character and in learning, of the products of our universities. UNESCO policy (1997) posited that basic education for all should interconnected literacy, income generation, health care, child care, family planning, food management, married couple education, labour laws, civil and voting rights, peace education, environmental management, HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and drug awareness (UNESCO 2002 ). The questions are what is the hope of Nigerian youth in universities? Do they really discover their potentials having gone through the university?What then can we say are the contributions of Nigeria universities to poverty reduction among the Nigerian youth? It becomes imperative, therefore, to take care the potency of Nigerian higher education for poverty reduction among the youth and to proffer measures for enhancement and sustainability of youth empowerment. Methodology The study was carried out using the descriptive survey research design. The youths in University of Lagos constituted the study which comprises calciferol respondents. They were diploma and 100-300 level students, from the eight faculties of the University of Lagos, Akoka campus, Lagos, Nigeria.Higher Education Potency for Poverty decrease Questionnaire (HEPPRQ) designed by the researchers was the data-gathering instrument. It measure sure such poverty reduction potencies as genius discovery, facilitation of mind development in the youth, good leaders skills, enabling intellectual development, development of social ethics through ordained interaction, photograph to entrepreneurial activities, provide of wit for creative ideas, preparation for commentary payable service (income generation), inculcation of technological ideas for product development, self think up mong peers, position of youth for global coincidence with contemporaries in the western world and realization of the academic inclination (discipline). Colleagues affirmed the face lustiness and reliability of the instrument The researchers personally distributed the questionnaire to 500 respondents across the 8 faculties on campus on different occasions some of the respondents returned the questionnaire immediately while others returned theirs the chase day. Of the 500 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 330 (66%) usable copies were returned.However, the compend was done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. To be precise, simple percentage and chi-square statistical tools were used. Findings totality repartee of the respondents was done by finding the percentages. The analysis is presented in elude1. hold over 1 Frequency count of responses and percentage ratings. S/N POTENCY INDICES invariably OFTEN SOMETIMES NEVER TOTAL 1 University environment and talent 200(60. 60%) 20(6. 06%) 110(33. 3%) 330 discovery 2 Higher education development and e 160(48. 48%) 90(27. 27%) 30(9. 09%) 50(15. 15%) 330 youths minds 3 Higher education and good leadership one hundred ninety(57. 57%) 50(15. 15%) 50(15. 15%) 40(12. 12%) 330 4 Higher education and intellectual 200(60. 60%) 50(15. 5%) 70(21. 21%) 10(3. 03%) 330 development 5 Social ethics through the university170(51. 51%) 70(21. 21%) 80(24. 24%) 10(3. 03%) 330 6 Higher education, parliamentary and cxx(36. 36%) 110(33. 33%) 90(27. 27%) 10(3. 03%) 330 governance process 7 entrepreneurial activiti es at school110 120(36. 6%) 80(24. 24%) 20(6. 06%) 330 (33. 33%) 8 University environment and mindset 170 100(30. 30%) 50(15. 15%) 10(3. 03%) 330 for creative ideas (51. 51%) 9 commentary payable service (income 170 80 40(12. 12%) 40(12. 2%) 330 generation) (51. 51%) (24. 24%) 10 University education and 180 70 70 10 330 technological ideas (54. 54%) (21. 21%) (21. 21%) (3. 03%) 11 Employment with related industries 70 80 150 30 330 (21. 1%) (24. 24%) (45. 45%) (9. 09%) 12 Sustenance in the face of job 110 90 110 20 330 scarcity (33. 33%) (27. 27%) (33. 33%) (6. 06%) 13 Apart from certification, university 190 120 20 330 environment and self look on (57. 57%) (36. 36%) (6. 6%) 14 Global alignment with my 190 100 30 10 330 contemporaries in the western world (57. 57%) (30. 30%) (9. 09%) (3. 03%) 15 Relevance of their academic 150 120 60 30 330 inclination (discipline) outside (45. 45%) (36. 36%) (18. 18%) (9. 9%) their myopic perception Hypothesis 1 There will be no significant influence of higher education exposure on youth talent discovery. To test this hypothesis, the chi-square statistical tool was employ and tested at 0. 05 level of significance. The closures are presented in table 2 below. Table 2 higher education and talent discovery. S/N Items Always Often Sometimes Never sum of money 1. 200(60. 60%) 20(6. 06%) 110(33. 33%) - 330 2. 160(48. 48%) 90(27. 27%) 30(9. 09%) 50(15. 15%) 330 3. 190(57. 57%) 50(15. 15%) 50(15. 15%) 40(12. 12%) 330 4. 200(60. 60%) 50(15. 15%) 70(21. 21%) 10(3. 03%) 330 5. 170(51. 51%) 70(21. 21%) 80(24. 24%) 10(3. 3%) 330 Column Total 920 280 140 110 1650 amount Total 460(55. 75%) 140(16. 96%) 70(20. 60%) 55(6. 66%) 825 Chi-square observed value = 52. 63 full point of freedom = 12 Level of significance = 0. 05 Critical Value = 21. 03 The result revealed that the observed value (52. 63) is greater than the critical table value (21. 03) given 12 degree of freedom at 0. 5 level of significance. The result is therefore significant, thus giving a basis for rejection of the null hypothesis. It can then be inferred that higher education has significant influence on the exposure of youth to talent discovery. Hypothesis 2 Higher education will have no significant influence on the physical and intellectual development of the youth. To test this hypothesis, the chi-square statistical tool was employed and tested at 0. 05 level of significance. The results are presented in table 3 below. Table 3 Higher education, Physical and Intellectual Development S/N Items Always Often Sometimes Never Total 6 120(36. 36%) 110(33. 33%) 90(27. 27%) 10(3. 03%) 330 7 110(33. 33%) 120(36. 36%) 80(24. 24%) 20(6. 06%) 330 8 170(51. 51%) 100(30. 30%) 50(15. 15%) 10(3. 03%) 330 9 170(51. 1%) 80(24. 24%) 40(12. 12%) 40(12. 12%) 330 10 180(54. 54%) 70(21. 21%) 70(21. 21%) 10(3. 03%) 330 Column Total 750 480 330 90 1650 Average To tal 375(45. 45%) 240(29. 09%) 165(20%) 45(5. 45%) 825 From the responses of the participants in the table, it is completed that the observed chi-square (49. 6) is greater than the critical value (21. 03) at 12 degree of freedom and at 0. 05 level of significance. The result is therefore significant, thus higher education will have significant influence on physical and intellectual development of the youth. Hypothesis 3 Higher education will make significant provision of resources and materials for youths adequate living. To test this hypothesis, the chi-square statistical tool was employed and tested at 0. 05 level of significance. The results are presented in table 4 below. Table 4 Higher Education and Youth satis situationory Living. S/N Items Always Often Sometimes Never Total 11 70(21. 21%) 80(24. 24%) 150(45. 45%) 30(9. 09%) 330 12 110(33. 33%) 110(33. 33%) 110(33. 33%) 20(6. 06%) 330 13 190(57. 57%) 20(6. 06%) 20(6. 06%) - 330 14 190(57. 57%) 30(9. 09%) 30(9. 9%) 10 (3. 03%) 330 15 150(45. 45%) 120(36. 36%) 60(18. 18%) 30(9. 09%) 330 Column Total 710 510 370 60 1650 Average Total 355(43. 03%) 255(30. 90%) 185(22. 42%) 30(3. 63%) 825 Chi-square observed = 195. 41 detail of freedom = 12 Significance level = 0. 05 Critical value = 21. 03The table above reflects that the chi-square calculated (195. 41) exceed the critical value (21. 03) at 12 degree of freedom and 0. 05 level of significance. Thus higher education provides resources and materials for youths adequate living. Results and Discussion Analysis revealed that the study population consisted of 330 participants, 210(63. 63%) were males and 120 (36. 365) females whose age ranges from 15 to 30 years. 300(90. 90%) were single and 30 (9. 09%) were married. 40 (12. 12%) were in diploma 1, 10 (3. 03%) in diploma 2, 90 (27. 27%) in 100 level, 40 (12. 12%) in 200 level and 150 (45. 45%) in 300 level respectively.Table shows the item-by-item analysis of the perception of the youth towards th e potency indices of higher education concerning poverty reduction. legal age of the youth (60. 60%) who participated in the study were of the opinion that university environment enables the youth to discover their talents and higher education poses challenges that enables intellectual development in the youth. 57. 57% of the respondents were in tune with the fact that higher education inculcates good leadership skills in the youth, apart from certification, being in the university environment gives them self entertain among their contemporaries in the western world.Also 51. 51% of the respondents who are in the mass opined that they gain social ethics through positive interaction with their peers while in the university. University environment provides the youth with the mindset for creative ideas and talents developed in the university prepare them to render payable service (income generation). 48. 48% of the participants who were in the absolute majority believed that higher education facilitates the development of youths mind, 45. 45% were in tune with the fact that higher education make the youth visit the relevance of their academic inclination (discipline) outside their myopic perception.Majority of the respondents (54. 54%) admit that university education inculcates technological ideas that can facilitate product development. However, 45. 45% of the respondents felt that youth only sometimes get employment with industries related to their discipline before graduation, but 21. 21% and 24. 24% of them believe that youth with university experience are ceaselessly able to sustain themselves in the face of job scarcity, equal percentage the participants contends that it happens only sometimes. The findings in this study showed that Higher education is significant in exposing the youth to talent iscovery. Higher education has significant influence on physical and intellectual development of the youth. Higher education makes significant provision of resources and materials for youths adequate living. The significance of higher education in exposing the youth to talent discovery is corroborated by UNESCO policy 1997, which stipulates that basic education for all should incorporate literacy, income generation, health care, child care family planning, food management, union education, labour laws, civil and voting rights, peace education, environmental management, HIV/AIDS and drug awareness.Also the finding relating to higher education having significant influence on physical and intellectual development of youth, is justified by Subar and Ashiru 2007, they opined that the students (youth) are the core input into our educational institutions and the quality of the output (students) depends largely on the provision of infrastructures capable of at one time or indirectly supporting, facilitating, influencing and encouraging the development of their potentials.Therefore, the knowledge, skills, competences and attitudes students (yo uth) acquire for life can make them fit into the cultural, social, economic and political contexts of the society in which they live, and to work and employment.The finding that education makes significant provision of resources and materials for youths adequate living, emanates from the fact that youth get employment with industries related to their discipline even before graduation, youths with university experience are mostly able to sustain themselves in the face of job scarcity, apart from certification, being in the university environment gives the youth self esteem among their peers, higher education positions youth for global alignment with their contemporaries in the western world and education makes the youth realize the relevance of the relevance of their academic inclination (discipline) utside their myopic perception. Conclusion ? From the foregoing, it is permissible to justify the above stated with the statement of the National Association of Colleges and Employers, there have been steady increases in college job placement. This means that not only are college graduates more likely to find good jobs, but they progress after college.Ashiru and Owodiong 2008 declared that the absolute position of the university graduate is declining as more educated workers are displacing less educated workers in the same job, this shows that the Nigerian youth should advance academically, this challenge to the youth is evidenced by the continuous increases in entry point requirement for jobs, for instance a degree certificate is required to teach in a subaltern school, while doctoral degree is required to lecture in the university. The dawn of the 21st century has brought profound and fundamental changes to economics, technology, politics, culture, morals, social values and ethics through globalization. This globalization has induced the collapse of time and space it has also expanded opportunities and challenges for the individual and for the nations and has s idelined the weak and the unprepared. Recommendations Government and university politics should ensure that university programmes and labour market are not at variance on the materialisation of relevance, utilitarian criteria based on prospects of income generation should be uppermost in the programmmes provided by the universities. ? Universities must have an organic linkage with the industrial and economic environment to contribute to economic growth. ? Acquisition of higher education should be encouraged among the youth, through scholarship awards for those who lack the resources in continuing heir education. ? Government should encourage enrollment expansion in tertiary institutions, which will avail more people the opportunity to higher education, hence empowerment through skill acquisition and enhanced intellectuality and human capital development that will necessitate innovative ideas for job creation, employment and economic advancement. ? University authorities should int egrate entrepreneurial skills into academic programmes of students for rounded preparation for the world of work. Entrepreneurial Development Programme (EDP) should be provided in all faculties to enable undergraduates develop and market products and services relevant to their areas of study. REFERENCES Anya, A. O. (2002), Science, Oil and the Future of Nigeria Economy, The shielder (Lagos), Wednesday, March 13, p. 16. Ashiru, A. O. and Owodiong-Idemeko, N. L. (2008). Higher Education and the Millennium Development Goals. Lagos Unpublished M. Ed. Thesis. Braun, J. V. ,Teklu, T. and Webb P. 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