Monday, April 8, 2019
Masculinity in Science Fiction Essay Example for Free
Masculinity in skill fiction EssayThroughout the bypast couple of centuries scientific discipline humanityufacturingalisation has become angiotensin-converting enzyme of the most(prenominal) popular genres orbwide. Thousands of people of various age, gender, racial and ethnical origin submerge into a world where the level of technical development is incredibly high, and where the machines very much seem to dominate their creators, hu pieces. To begin the essay we should first give the definition for what the acquisition fictionalisation is. So, the Wikipedia says that erudition fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined comprehension and applied knowledge upon parliamentary law and roughlybodys as individuals. Scientists have tenacious been arguing about the reasons that throw away science fiction so popular among the readers. The realm, depicted in science fiction novels isnt magical or fairy, interchangeable t he vision world is. On the contrary, its often more cruel and merciless than our reality is. One of the main(prenominal) hypothesis is that people like to drift into the worlds of robots, intelligent machines and spaceships because thither the easy ways to solving the emerge problems exist. In most of those harbors on that point is little attention paid to the human to human relations. On the contrary, the problems that atomic number 18 dealt in science fiction novels be rather more global than the relations amid the individuals. The authors of this human body of books prefer to publish about the rise and fall of the empires, about the giant wars, won or dis localizeed with the help of the mind, intrigues and power.For lots of people in our Western, highly individualistic world, reading science fiction books is one of the few ways to forget about the necessity to maintain and keep social relations with others. Nowadays, when the society releases us, its members, to ope n and develop our individuality freely, communication between the individuals becomes more and more complicated, as people, given the chance to develop the way they want, muster more differences between each other, so that they have less in common with each passing year. This fact, combined with the absence of the defined standards of communication that existed in traditional societies, make communication a tough task for the contemporary people.Its well known, that women adapt easier and faster than the man do, thus they experience less difficulties in adjusting to this new way of communication. On the contrary, men ar those who sometimes experience severe troubles when some advanced form of social interaction is required. thusly, man read science fiction in order to transfer themselves in the world where mind and power decide a lot, and emotions are ordinarily seen as something lateral and even trifling.This hypothesis is confirmed by the fact that mannishs reconcile the main auditory for the books, shows and films in this genre.In order to better understand what is science fiction about, and wherefore is it preferred by man, well research the inner genres science fiction has in it. Kay Fowler offers his classification for the genres of science fiction which isWorld at Risk SF and Apocalyptic Science FictionPolitical/Massive War/eschaton Weapons DisasterAlien Invasion/Conquest of EarthPlague/Disease/EpidemicAgricultural/ ecological/Population DisastersFar Future or Ancient History-Future History. Utopias/Dystopias/and in-betweenUtopia near utopias ambiguous utopias, heterotopiasDystopias jump Earth/Alternate History (What If?)Time Travel, Time Paradoxes, Time Patrolling, Time Wars, Alternate Time Lines religion/Theology/Anti-religion and Science FictionSpace OperaRobots, Androids, cyborgs, Clones and Cyberbunk/Virtual Reality, Genetic Engineering, and Nanotechnology.World Building/Terraforming/scientific and Social InventivenessESP/Telepathy/Psi forcefulnesssUnderwater living/ocean worldsHuman colony/Conquest of Other WorldsFeminist Science Fiction/Alternate Sexualities/Gender BendersSF with a theme of deafness or a focus on non-oral communication (Kay Fowler, Themes/Genres in Science Fiction An idiosyncratic and deplorably incomplete list)As you stomach note from the list above, science fiction is mostly the writings of action, the field of operation of action for the active people, warriors, politicians and scientists, where there is little place for emotions and emotional life. Contemporary critics say that science fiction is one of the genres whose main characteristic is reflecting and reproducing masculinity, creating the specific, sometimes even perverted image of it in the minds of those who fancy this manikin of literature.Of course, some researchers of the SF literature consider that science fiction seem(s) also to promise more freedom than do non-genre literature to imagine alternatives to the privileged as sumptions of heterosexuality and masculinity that suffuse our culture, as it is noted in The Queer Encyclopedia of the ocular Arts. But, in the reality, the authors of the SF books put the male as the central role and in a position of power, as it is noted in the denomination Science fictions use of Utopian and Dystopian visions of the future in relation to challenging boundaries of gender and / or sexuality.Today, when the criterion of novels, stories and tales written in this genre is enormous, science fiction authors will do anything to attract the readers attention to their novel. Some years ago, when the SF began its rapid development, it was new and original to make the supporter of the story female. Unfortunately, for most of the SF writers it meant only when the change of context or decorations, not touching the key points of their writings.To attract the readers (and, as we can recall, those are mostly males) attention they provide their main booster with huge eyes a nd breasts, enormously long legs and a tempting smile, but inside their heroines are as masculine as any male monster slayer with the huge gun is. Thus, changing the decorations for their stories, the authors evade the convictions in gender discrimination, in the self aforementioned(prenominal)(prenominal) time attracting new waves of male readers who are longing to read about the long-legged half-naked amazons fighting with the evil. Thus, the heroes of science fiction novels are mostly males to the marrow of their bones, and it doesnt depend of their physical sex.Science fiction literature normally keys conflict situations, like war, ethical, racial or cultural conflicts. The protagonists of the science fiction stories are unceasingly the people of action those who possess notable decision-making skills, and are able to actualize their choices immediately. If we analyze current researches in the field of gender psychology, a conclusion can be deduced that those qualities stip ulate mostly males, while women are considered to be more of the facilitators, peace makers. Stereotypical women behavior is characterised by irrationality, whichs doesnt belong to the features that characterize this genre.A considerable part of science fiction novels and stories are characterized by the external conflict between the protagonists of the story. Of course the existing external conflict in science fiction, like in some of the other genres, is often the reflection of the internal protagonists conflict, but in most science fiction stories this internal clash is moved on the background of the story.Most SF stories are written for the man to allow them to drift into the world, where power and mind is the key to solving all of the existing problems. The external conflict in the story is usually characterized by the considerable amount of power the opposing characters possess, for whether it is physical or mental. Power is the key to becoming a winner in the clash, whichs t he only goal the masculine protagonists usually have in mind. Another gaze into the gender psychology study book provides us with the development that the necessity to prove ones superiority by becoming a winner in some conflict is also mainly male characteristic.Science fiction novels are usually the stories describing cover situations, where the plot develops, and one event causes another. To cut the long story short, SF books are usually based on logical interpretation of the events. The causal consecutive ties there are usually very strong, thus there are usually little unfinished plot lines and the events that do not have any substantional nitty-gritty to the development of the plot of the story. All the technologies used in the story are scientifically validated, the principles of their operation are usually explained or understandable to the readers, in contradiction to the principles that stipulate the usage of magic in envisage books.One of the reasons for which less wo men read science fiction than man do, is the lack of the elements of decoration that make the book alive in womens opinion. In the feminine literature the event that is described or the person that appeared may be introduced only in order to help the reader to feel the atmosphere of the setting described by the author.Only few of the science fiction novels hold such seemingly useless elements in them, while in all of the others every gun thats hanging on the debate is going to fire, and every person appearing, and every action been committed are the basis for some further development of the plot, as Justine Larbalestier proves in his research book The Battle of the Sexes in Science Fiction.Science fiction novels protagonists are also often characterized by their orientation on victory. Its a usual pattern of action for the SF heroes to fight the things they dont like or dont understand. They seldom seek for the round-abouts for reaching their goals, preferring the straight and habi tual way of defeating and destroying the things that prevent them from getting the needed things.Such a way of solving the problems is also mostly male characteristic. For women the strategy would rather be to understand the enemy, to find the reasons for which hes opposing and try to get rid of them, preferably uniting their forces with the past rivals. Women turn tail to understand and not to fight, as destroying diverges with the basic female ideals, while creation is their field.But, as we can note, there are fewer science fiction novels that tell about the cooperation between the aliens and people, than of those, that describe the wars between the different races. In addition, most of the novels that actually describe that cooperation show it is based on the military, political or scotch needs only. Actually, the situation with the aliens psycho type for lots of SF writers is the same as it is with gender appurtenant of the protagonists.The exposition of the aliens phenotype is called to piddle the impression in the consumers mind that humans in the story are contacting with the creatures all told different from them, but if the reader looks closer he begins to feel himself pigeoned, as there are the same humans under the scary carnival masks.Unfortunately, only a small amount of the writers puts an effort to externalise the psycho type different from the humans one. Of course, most of them dont even need it, as its not necessary and is even harmful to research the enemys psychology thoroughly, as it may summon sympathy or, whichs even worse, the desire to find the reasons for the antagonists incompatible behavior. Psychologists prove this is typically masculine approach to problem-solving.Thats why only a few books describe cultural cooperation between the people and aliens. Human to human cooperation has been thoroughly researched and described, so its ineffective to create the human in masks type of aliens, while creating and designing the psyc hology of the race much different from humans requires lots of time and effort.Science fiction got its name because of the numerous elements of scientific research and the results of progress that characterize the books written in this genre. Science is the world of rationality, of the casual-consecutive bonds, where all the events have their reasons, and provoke certain consequences, the world where the miracle is unlikely, because it deprives that world of the reality it possesses. Introducing miracle in SF novel is the same as bringing the atomic bomb into the world of the faeries and dragons. If it is through without the proper skills only the excellent writers possess, those new elements ruin the authenticity of the imaginary world, making it look like a childs picture with the broken proportions.SF world is primordially opposite to the woman irrational great deal of the environ world, the place where the content is valued and the form is neglected.Most of the science fiction worlds demand their protagonist to belong to one of the two categories, either the warrior or the scientist, in order to survive in the surrounding society. Of course there are woman whose nature is of one of this two types, but for most of the females those roles are unfamiliar and unwanted.It sometimes happens in the SF that the woman have to play those roles despite of their desires or longings in order to survive, but most writers prefer to describe the beings that feel themselves comfortable in those two roles, as only than their heroes are capable of actualizing their hidden potential and revealing some of the inner qualities. Thus they prefer to write about males, who are naturally designed to play those roles.It is also important for the science fiction protagonist to be centered on the goals put before him by the gods, doom or just the consequences, and the science fiction writers know that man are much more suitable for this role than woman are. true to life(predicate) h eroine will be distracted dozens of times a day from her high mission by the cute kitty mioving, new wrinkle appeared or the handsome man walking nearby.It is also worthy of mentioning that science fiction literature rarely describes the societies where the humans individuality is valued. For most of the heroes their surroundings are not valued for their personal qualities, but for the things they can do, thus the notion of personality is often replaced by the notion of function in the mind of the protagonist of the SF novel. This also belongs to the typical masculine qualities, described by the gender psychologists.Te contemporary world becomes more and more feminine with each passing year, and the science fiction is often used to , distract the males attention from this fact. Using the example of Terminator 2, Amanda Fernbach in her article The Fetishization of Masculinity in Science Fiction The Cyborg and the Console Cowboy says that Ordinary masculinity lacks, and the technolog ical Terminator represents a fetishized, reckon masculinity that is a desirable alternative.In Terminator 2, the Terminator represents an idealized phallic masculinity heavily dependent upon technofetishes to ward off the anxieties of the male spectator faced with the position of a future vision of castrated masculinity. Although he learns to make jokes, the Terminator admits he could never cry. He becomes more human in every way except those that display weakness or vulnerability.Thus we can make a conclusion that science fiction is a genre designed specially for man in order to solve some of their psychological problems and satisfy some of their needs. SF is designed for man and about them, at least most of the examples are.ReferencesFernbach, A 2000, The Fetishization of Masculinity in Science Fiction The Cyborg and the Console Cowboy. Science Fiction Studies, Volume 27, Part 2Fowler. K 1999, Themes/Genres in Science Fiction An idiosyncratic and woefully incomplete list. Ramar o College of New-Jersey. Viewed 11 May, 2005. http//orion.ramapo.edu/kfowler/sfthemes.html Larbalestier, J 2002, The Battle of the Sexes in Science Fiction. Wesleyan University defendScience fiction. Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia. Viewed 11 May, 2005 http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_fictionScience fictions use of Utopian and Dystopian visions of the future in relation to challenging boundaries of gender and / or sexuality. 2002, Viewed 11 May, 2005 http//www.corneredangel.com/amwess/papers/sf_gits_esca.doc.Summers. C (ed) 2004, The Queer Encyclopedia of the Visual Arts. Cleis Press.