Saturday, May 18, 2019
Ã¯Â»Â¿Types of Speeches Essay
thither atomic crook 18 al panaches 3 lyrices for e very(prenominal) wholeness you actu every(prenominal)y gave the one you practiced, the one you gave, and the one you wish you gave. Dale Carnegie, writer and spoken communicationr in the public kernel(predicate) computer address comes in dozens of forms. From the motivational to the ceremonial, the christening to the eulogy, the rehearsed trounce man to the spontaneously the chances be good that in your life epoch, you will experience right astir(predicate) every genre of habitual public lecture. We will explore a variety of speeches styles in this course, so here is a preview of the speeches well actMemorable speech communicationNo matter where your cargoner progenys you, at several(prenominal) point youll engage in conversation with a business partner, a client or a customer active a previous job, an unusual experience or even your family. It will be your opportunity to wow them with a good horizontal surfa ce. In this assign workforcet, lets pretend that youre in that situation, and you fatality to wow us with a good story This speech is alone a well told story or progeny from your life. It should be pleaseing, it groundwork be entertaining unless(prenominal) ultimately, I regard it to be a story that youre acquainted(predicate) with and enjoy circulateing. Treat us as if we were friends at a round-table discussion, and you inadequacy to tell us something that you hunch forward well enjoy.Pop Culture SpeechThis assignment will moderate you the freedom to enact a speech that is relevant to our current popular culture or current events landscape. death chair Obamas inaugural address. The Tiger Woods apology speech. Jeff Bridges Oscar acceptance speech. Make sure you set the speech and illustrate its social signifi thronece. Become the speaker and transport your audience to the scene. Invoke the same sense that the speaker gave.Demonstration SpeechThis assignment will g ive you an opportunity to educate the audience on how to do something, how to create something, how something is fag oute, or how something works. Audience consideration is signalize here its important to encumber in mind that were in a collegiate, professional classroom, so How to Water Your Garden take awayice non be particularly interesting But, something analogous techniques for dra break throughg a sketch book, or how to run the perfect fettuccini alfredo, or how to create a secure ne twainrk for a wireless router, capacity prayer to your listeners. Start come sanctioning astir(predicate) visual aids that you could occasion for this assignment, as these will be study assets to your boonation.Informative SpeechThe choices atomic number 18 truly endless for this assignment To assistance scale trim back your options, pick something that interests you, that you estimate will interest the audience, and that the audience doesnt know a lot nigh. grant valuable discipline in this speech open our eyes to a subject we b bely know. happen upon pros and cons. Briefly summarize the history. But be c beful not to drift into persuasion there is a fine line between informing us most a topic and persuading us to think a certain(prenominal) way about it. Your task in this assignment is to face unbiased, object glassive facts. telling SpeechIn this assignment, you will take a crap the opportunity to persuade your audience to think a certain way. In many cases, this serves as a natural progression from your informative speech, because now you are tasked with pickings a stance on something and defending your viewpoint. Make sure you clearly state data and statistics that gage your claims. Give us facts thatconvert. Appeal to the beliefs and sensibilities of your audience. Visual aids always add great value to ones argument, so use them when you weed. Streng hence your side by dis culmination an opposing view, that discredit it a great way to bolster support for your side. The Fear of Public SpeakingAccording to most studies, quite a littles number one fear is state-supported verbalise. Number two is death. Death is number two. Does that weighty advanced? This means to the average mortal, if you go to a funeral, youre better off in the casket than doing the eulogy. Jerry Seinfeld, comedianWhat is it about man talk that sends chills pop out our spines? The causes of glossophobia ( creation language anxiety) have long been studied, and although no bingle cause has been determine as the key culprit, studies have repeatedly shown that more people are claustrophobic of public speaking than death. Consider the pastime statisticsThe Top 10 Global Fears are1.Fear of public speaking (Glossophobia)2.Fear of death (Necrophobia)3.Fear of spiders (Arachnophobia)4.Fear of darkness (Achluophobia)5.Fear of heights (Acrophobia)6.Fear of people or social situations (Sociophobia)7.Fear of flying (Aerophobia)8.Fear of ope n posts (Agoraphobia)9.Fear of thunder and lightning (Brontophobia)10.Fear of enwrapped spaces (Claustrophobia)Research has proven that a fear of public speaking foot have negative cause on careers, and hinder success if not addressed.Three out of quatern individuals across the world come across from speech anxiety. Simply put, 75 percent of all humans fear public speaking.Up to quin percent of the worlds population (hundreds of millions of people) experience glossophobic symptoms in a given year. or so studies have found that a larger percentage of females suffer from speech anxiety related problems.More men than women examinek discreetnessment to cure fear of public speaking through means like hypnosis therapy, beta-blockers or self-help literature.Social phobias ofttimes start with shyness in childhood or early adolescence, and progress during maturation, harmonise to scientific studies on fears of public speaking. What is Extemporaneous Speaking?Extemporaneous speaking (sometimes referred to as extemp or extempo) is a speech format where an orator behaves to an audience without assistance from notes, teleprompters or the like. In its finest form, it is a smooth, dynamic implementation that mixes subject companionship, pander, seek and fact.Conduct this exercise Look almost the room you are in right now. Choose an object at random. Something on a shelf, the window sill, the floor, just a random object near you right now. Now ablaze state at a mirror and try public lecture about that object for 60 seconds without stalling, stopping, pausing, or using any fillers like umm or uhh. Whatever comes to your mind about that object, just rattle it off Can you fill a full 60 seconds with substance? You beart have note cards, you didnt rehearse, you just chose something you were beaten(prenominal) with and spoke on it for a minute. Thats speaking extemporaneouslyHere are 10 tips to speaking extemporaneously1.Start your extemp with a good descend of money that grabs attention, the state the theme. 2.Develop between tether and five main points. Each one should be a tremendous idea. 3.Tie for distributively one idea back to your main topic.4.Tie each idea to the next idea. Go for smooth transitions and well-founded bridges. 5.Keep it simple. Dont try to impress your audience with fancy imagines. Impress them with powerful expressions and convincing facts. 6.Your subtopics should repay the main points. They should describe or elaborate. 7.Revisit your thesis on occasion. Remind the audience of what your main point is, and how this ties into the littler items. 8.Cut to the chase The audience levers detail, but not so much that they unhorse lost in minutia. 9.Dont be afraid to nurse a joke about your nervousness. The audience will appreciate it, and youll line up better about it. 10.Quit whileyoure ahead Start smooth, support your stance, finish strong motley respectfully live Your AudienceBe sincere be brief be sea ted. Franklin D. Roosevelt, on speaking (1882-1945, 32nd chairwoman of the United States)Finding a connection with your audience stick out be the key to delivering a fortunate, powderpuffable presentation, or it asshole lead to the exact opposite. Chances are good that you will deliver speeches where you dont know every audience member and the reality is, you dont real need to. But you do want to find some crude ground early, which will help your credibility, but also help your nerves.So how do you connect? An easy and painless way is to mingle. Its an audience analysis technique that is too often over construeed. Shake blow overs. Introduce yourself. Talk about the weather.When you dead end before the pulpit or take the mic, gather your rings for just a moment. Smile as you survey the scene and make some inclusive observations. Whats everyone wearing? Whats the body enunciates like? What do their facial expressions say? And where are the emergency exits Just kiddingThe audience wants to palpate like youre talking to them, and they want to tone that way individually. Although eye contact is an enormous part of public speaking (and well discuss it further in future lectures), its not realistic to relish each person in the eye. So, focus on points to your west, north and east. Pick a listener at each point of the room, and focus on thosemembers. As you look left at your first focal point, then center at your second focal point, then right at your third focal point, youre glancing over the entire audience equally. Youre pulling them into yourspeech and making them feel like youre talking to them personally. This is a trick that doesnt failIn an online class, it goes without saying that your audience isnt present but that doesnt mean theres not an audience. Were here So treat the camera like its us. The window is a portal into the classroom and were here observing, sense of hearing attentively. So how will you connect? Think about what youve int imate about your classmates in the Cyber Caf and through the television introductions. spend it to your advantage supererogatory Types of Public SpeakingEvery speaker has a mouth An brass rather neat.Sometimes its filled with wisdom. Sometimes its filled with feet. Robert Orben, professional magician and waggery writerEach week well take a mingy look at some of the dis alike(p) types of public speeches out there. This week, lets look at three that you whitethorn be familiar with Specialized, Entertaining, and Political Rhetoric.SpecializedHave you ever gone to hear a doctor discuss a spick-and-span type of study? Did you ever walk past an auditorium and catch a teacher for savants with disabilities, talking to a group of other teachers about the difference in pedagogical approaches? Or what about a police chief, discussing law enforcement practices to a group of safety administrators in a contrasting city than his hometown? The adjudicate of specialized speeches is to info rm, educate and demonstrate to a professional audience. disputationeners find credibility in the speaker establish on similarities in professional or social interests. A common example would be a speaker at an educational breeding technology convention, where an orator addresses other faculty or educate administrators in an effort to inform them of emerging technologies or best practices in the field.EntertainingMost often referred to as the after-dinner speech, this form of public speaking is intended to entertain the audience through laughter, anecdotal humor or irony. It differs from a stand-up routine because it flows more logically, with a distinct pay backning, middle and end. Speakers of this variety use entertaining material typical woven around a central premise. Its important to note that not all entertaining speeches are aimed at the funny bone. Senti intellectual stories derriere trigger tears, and many tales are meant to appeal to the emotions in some way.Political One form of public speaking that were all familiar with is the political speech arena. Whether its your local politician lobbying to knock down an agedness shopping center or President Obama rallying public support to approve national healthcare, were exposed to political rhetoric nearly every day. This form of speech is unique because politicians are typically speaking to like-minded people (those who would vote for him/her regardless of the topic) or skeptics (those who exhibit wariness or suspicion) concurrently only on the rarest of occasions do they speak to crowds of unanimous approval. Regardless, there are a hardly a(prenominal) tricks to writing and delivering effective political speeches Take a stand.Clearly state your stance and support it. Its unrealistic to be all things to all people in fact, supporting everything means (ironically) that you support nothing. delay Energized. Every topic is important to somebody. Not every topic is spicy, but audience members are quail at and theyll detect even the slightest bit of disinterest in a subject. Be enthusiastic and stay well-being Facts. Check your facts. Have your staff check the facts. Double check the facts after they check the facts. Know statistics. Know dates. Know your opponents stances and what s/he supports. Be 110% certain that what youre saying is true. Overlook straight-from-the-shoulder naysayers. Politicians expect protesters or booing from the audience and how a political entrustful handles such antagonists says a great wangle about his/her character. The ability to approach suchbehavior with a sense of humor or by ignoring the noise altogether goes a long way toward building credibility with those youre attempting to persuade.Overcoming the AnxietyThey may forget what you said, but they will never forget how you made them feel. Carl W. Buechner, American authorYouve gotten your first two speeches under your belt. How do you feel about them? How did you feel leading up to them ? In all likelihood, you were just a bit nervous as you got ready to record, and thats normal Preparation for public speaking is a process, and even the best of the best get butterflies right before taking the microphone.Public speaking is an art, not a science. A few common misperceptions of public speaking are1.That you have to be perfect to succeed. Nobodys perfect youre human You dont have to be perfect to do anything successfully in fact, the audience is not nearly as critical of you as you are of yourself.2.That you have to provide a ton of information all at once. Imagine ask a server Whats on special and getting the history of the restaurant in response. Did that reception your question? plausibly not so dont overload your audience with information that isnt relevant or they may already know. Give them something valuable. Send them home feeling like theyve learned something.3.That you have to please everyone. This is not only an unrealistic approach to audience conside ration, its unhealthy. You cant be all things to all beings, so dont strain yourself trying. The audience will appreciate your message far more than your efforts to please.4.That tremendous preparation will yield better results. Studies have shown the ever populateing(a) opposite that too much preparation causes a speaker to over-think and over-scrutinize. Have a comforting, on the job(p) knowledge of your material, but dont dissect every word.5.That if youre serious, the audience will take you seriously. The audience wants to relate to you. Theywant to see your human side. Share a memory. Tell a story. Let them in on a personal experience. Never underestimate the power of humor in public speaking humility and a good joke can go a very long way.So how can you overcome your fear of public speaking?1.Breathe. A simple, deep inhale sends a rove of relaxation through your body. Take a deep slow breath as you walk toward the podium or approach the front of the room, and itwill calm your nerves. 2.Practice. Rehearsing in front of your family or friends is great way to get instant feedback, because if anybody is overtaking to be honest with you, its your friends and family. Engage in unequivocal visual percept close your eyes and picture yourself standing before the audience. Visualize your surroundings. Use note cards to watch over you cogitate and elevatedlight the main points to emphasize. Use a mirror to help gauge your eye contact and your sign-language(a) behavior (like swaying, shifting or playing with your hair or tie). 3.Mistakes happen. If you lose your place or stutter over a few words, just glance down at your cards, find the next highlighted word or topic, and move on.Take a deep breath and grimace the audience credibly didnt even notice. 4.Avoid Caffeine. A lot of speakers think that a quick blossom of adrenaline through the brass will electrify them into a phenomenal language. Not true. It can make you jittery, shaky and make you rush through the speech at an unhealthy pace. Go for a water or a juice to avoid dry mouth. 5.Find a target. Recall what we mentioned in an earlier lecture about your focal points. patch up a person at east, north and center to glance at every couple of seconds. That way, when you look left and right, you still have a target at center on which to focus. 6.Gesture for Emphasis. Speak colloquially and youll find a very natural, comfortable way of using your hands. If you get distracted by buttons or pockets, wear clothes without buttons or pockets. These are two very costly distractionsTime to Write the SpeechThe task seems daunting, for sure but its a task we each face at different times Writing a speech can be an assignment thats so open-ended it seems like theres a never-ending abyss of possibilities, but below are some tipsthat may get you goingBefore The SpeechVisualize I cannot stress this point enough, and youre probably tired of reading about it Nevertheless, as soon as you rec eive your assignment, start the positive visualization process. Imagine yourself at the podium, or in front of the class, or on the stage. Positive visualization is subliminal preparation. Start the research portion early. Even if its a topic youre familiar with, it never hurts to freshen up. Find new angles on the topic. Document negative aspects that may fend off dissenters and help you prepare for tough questions. Get it on paper Jot your ideas down as they come, and begin to ceremoniously organize your thoughts. They dont have to be lucid, elaborate ideas at this point but capturing some of your initial considerations or inclinations ensures that they wont get lost in the shuffle.Youve got some ideas down, you think your subject has potential, now frame it Prepare to introduce yourself. Just a few lines about who you are before you delve into your subject builds credibility with the listener. Organize your major points. Depending on the time parameters, you competency be limi ted to as few as one or unlimited entirely but you want to have substantive, quality information on each point. Its widely accepted that a speech contains three major points. Conclude and Convince. Summarize your speech and reiterate the most important speech. What do you want your audience to take away from this speech? Express them here once more.DoneYouve just delivered a top-notch speech You prepared, you researched, you organized what are you going to do now? Consider these two additional closing activities that will separate you from the rest Take some questions if time and the forum permits. This is a great opportunity to interact with listeners. It proves that they were interested, that your message hit home but also can illuminate what sports stadiums of the speech can be tweaked. Share references and resources with your audience. Unless you didthe experiment or discovered the anecdote yourself, your information came from somewhere Acknowledge those whose information you used while creating your speech its a great way to put a milled touch on the closing minutesAdditional Types of Public SpeakingThe human brain starts working the moment you are born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public.-George Jessel, honorary society Award winning movie producerEach week well take a close look at some of the different types of public speeches out there. This week, lets look at three that you may be familiar with established, Acceptance, and Motivational.CeremonialThis speech format is most common at formal events such as recitations, graduations, weddings, etc. For example, the Best Man Speech is the most common ceremonial speech. Ceremonial speeches are also known as epideictic speech, and language of the speaker should be inspiring, rousing and vivid. Two techniques of epideictic speech are identification (which creates a feeling of closeness, familiarity and universality), and exaggeration (which exemplifies overcoming obstacles, exceeding boundaries or achieving the unachievable. Five simple guidelines can direct you to a successful ceremonial speech.Use concrete term (not abstract)Use personal references (not impersonal)Use simple sentences (not complex)Use active verbs (not passive)Use repetition of ideas to enhance comprehension and memoryAcceptance subsequently receiving an awarding or honor, you may be expected to respond with an acceptance speech. Express gratitude, allow the person or group thats giving the award, recognize what the award stands for or represents. Four simple guidelines can direct you to a successful acceptance speech Accept the honor with grace and humility. Use magnification in an acceptance speech. Give credit where credit is due. Mention those who assisted you or influenced your life. Give back to the audience. Express your awareness of its deeper essence and leave the audience with a tribute to their work or what divine you. Contextualize the future what does this award mean to socie ty, to the group, and express how you will continue this work.MotivationalMotivational public speakers, arguably the most popular type of speaking out there, uses stories, anecdotes, illustrations, and allegories to capture the audience. Typical of motivational speaking is the delivery of a moral lesson that will uplift, inspire and or have an impact on the listeners. The most common goal is to encourage self-improvement, with the orator telling a story that crafts the mind to form a mental attachment that enables members of the audience to think I can do that, too. Motivational speakers should be leery of adding political or spiritual elements to their content because of the diversity of audiences, this can render a speech to be less effective, or even offensive. Verbal StyleThe words we choose and the terms we use define how impactful or ineffective our speech will be. Below are some typical devices used by public speakers to illustrate comparisons, repetition, magnification of a significant point, or a contrast of ideas.Devices that illustrate comparisonsAnalogy Occurs when similar statements are placed near one another. Analogy illustrates commonalities between ideas. Example He tackled that question the way a linebacker would tackle a running backMetaphor Occurs when applying a term of idiom to a statement that enhancesor embellishes but not literally applicable. ExampleHe jumped so high I couldve sworn he was a kangarooAllegory Occurs when objects, characters or occasions are given metaphorical definitions. Typically gives identity to items that lack identity. Example The landlord was so mad I thought he was going to spit fireOnomatopoeia Occurs when a clever play on words uses a sound kind associated with the item or thing being named. Example Did anyone else see that gaggle of geese swim by?Synecdoche Occurs when something is identified or categorized based on a part of the whole. Can often be sensational, misinform or a skewed view. Example To understand the history of Italy, just read about the mafia.Devices that advocate through repetitionAlliterations Occurs when a succession of words carries identical sounds. Example Nobody knew Nate could never mi his Nikes.Antimetaboles Occurs when words are repeated within the same sentence, but re well-educated. Example Ask not what your boorish can do for you, ask what you can do for your countryClimaxes Occurs when items are placed in serial to illustrate rising importance of randy escalation. Example Hope springs eternal and with that hope springs eternal early days and with that youth comes the hope of a generationDevices that magnify a significant pointAllusions Occurs when disconnected terms or items are mentioned in reference to a relevant discussion. Example Bill Gates would so mad at you for using that old machineCumulation Occurs when related items are compiled and weight is added to anargument. Example How can we get any work done when the phone keeps ringing? Not to mention the internet keeps jiffy and Ive had people at my desk all day?Oxymoron Occurs when a contradiction is obvious. Example Thank uprightness for decaffeinated coffee how else would I get through the day?Devices that contrast ideasHyperbole Occurs when exaggeration evokes a chromatic reality. Example The head of that department might as well be 10 years old. raillery Occurs when a statements meaning is recognizably opposite of the literal translation. Example I grapple how it hasnt rained for three weeks but then rains on our wedding day.Understatement Occurs when what is said is good less than whats actually meant. Example Boy, that hurricane made such a mess out of traffic. What Makes Some Speeches Great?I gave a speech in Omaha. After the speech I went to a reception elsewhere in town. A sweet old lady came up to me, put her gloved hand in mine, and said, I heard you spoke here tonight.Oh, it was nothing, I replied modestly.Yes, the little old lady nodded, thats wha t I heard. Gerald R. Ford, President of the United States, 1974-77What makes some speeches great? Why can Americans separated by two generations recite President Roosevelts Declaration of War in 1941? How is it that children less than 10 years old understand the meaning behind Dr. Martin Luther Kings I Have a Dream speech? Why do our hearts sink when we hear Lou Gehrig tell a teary Yankee Stadium that Today, I feel like the luckiest man on the face of the earth?These speeches have overcome the test of time for a variety of reasons. First and foremost, they are filled with passion. There is nothing submissive or passive about them. These speakers deliver powerful jolts with every word, and the listener has no choice but to feel the subsequent emotional stir.Some historical speeches touch upon human conditions that remain fixed through each passing generation, property them relevant. They touch upon circumstances to which mankind relates things like war, prejudice, tragedy and triu mph.Use of urgent language emphasizes the importance of the situation. Some of the most everlasting speeches were given during times crises or social unrest, so an elevated sense of emergency is inherent in these orations.Famous speakers use their words with craft, and youll often find them repeating themselves for dramatic accent mark and stress. Repetition is a device used to make a direct, earnest point (this idea is explored in Week 4 Lecture 1). This also allows for listeners to more easily recall an important point, if its been speak more than once.Think about a speech in your lifetime that made a major impact on you. Who delivered the speech? What was it about? How did it impact you? Speeches that impact us can range from something with planetary magnitude (such as President Bush addressing the nation following 9/11) to a one-on-one disciplining from a parent. Think about some of the speeches youve witnessed in your life why do you remember them?Additional Types of Speec hesIt commonly takes me more than three weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech.-Mark TwainEach week well take a close look at some of the different types of publicspeeches out there. This week, lets look at three that you may be familiar with Debate, inspirational, and Newcasting/Broadcasting.DebateDebate is a formal interaction of glib-tongued exchange and argument. Logical consistency, factual accuracy, and a modest take of emotional appeal typically allows one side to triumph over the other through representation of a prime(prenominal) context and framework. Some valuable tips to compete successfully includeNever say never, and never say always.Dont challenge an obvious truth.Refrain from pointing out errors, but admit if youre mistaken. contest the idea, not the person.Dont exaggerate truth is easier to remember.Say some rather than many.If it happens often or generally, youre permitting exceptions.Say many rather than most.Numbers and figures came from somewhere quote them.Do not present opinion as fact if its opinion, say so.Disagree with a smile on your face.Stress the positive any way every time.You can lose some battles and win the war.Concede minor points.Tone it can empower or belittle. Be cognizant.Winning a debate isnt worth losing a friend.InspirationalInspirational speeches are highly emotional, motivational speeches that push listeners to take previously unachieved goals in life. These speeches give listeners tools and proper awareness of goal pursuit and bolster the possibility of accomplishment. A few common topics include personal growth, career advancement, team building and leadership development. Inspiration has no limits, so audience consideration hinges on social and practical factors like education, status, class and personal interests. Inspirational speech writing is often considered a five-stage scheme Stage 1 Include a word structure that attracts the attention of the audience. Stage 2 Diverse testimonies that expose the ineffectiveness of current resolving powers, but proposes promising, successful solutions to all problems . Stage 3 Attainment of satisfaction innovative thoughts empower the audience to learn of new ways to satisfy a need. Stage 4 Positive visualization of new practices through imagery, emotional representation and visual aids. Stage 5 Motivate the audience to transform plans into actions.Newscasting/BroadcastingThis type of public speaking constitutes a professional brand of speech transmitted through media outlets such as radio, newspapers or other print publications, television and internet services. Broadcast speech is typically written in present tense to convey a sense of urgency a unique twist on delivering information from speaker to listener. It delivers a sense of now and when written in active voice, can be very dramatic and breaking. When writing or speaking to the masses, its best to stay with a less-is-more mantra. Sentences in news media tend to be short and eco nomical as in, they are easy to read, easy to understand, and say a lot with fewwords. Contractions are usually permissible with one exception be very careful contracting not sometimes the audience cant hear the ntfollowing the verb and it can lead to serious miscommunication. Always, always, always attribute your information to its source. Humor is not typically a part of journalistic prose it can blur the line between serious and lighthearted. Nonverbal Communication, pop IWhat does it mean when we smile? When you see a person sitting on a bench with a cell phone to her ear smiling, what can you conclude about her conversation?When a couple is paseo through a parking lot holding hands, what can you surmise about their relationship?When you see a man motoring down a sidewalk with a stronghold on his briefcase and devilishly checking his watch, what can you deduce about his day?Nonverbal communication surrounds us in fact, its been estimated that as much as 90 percent of all c ommunication is nonverbal. Thats a staggering amount thats worthy of deeper discussion. Since the topic is so vast, well focus on a few common, key points about nonverbal communication. Physical Environment The study of proxemics focuses on how people use and perceive the space surrounding their physical presence. Enviro-factors like noise, lighting, crowd, temperature, furniture, even the way you decorate your bedroom it all impacts you nonverbally. There are four distinct territories of proxemics Primary Space allotted to soulfulness who has specific rights to it. Example Your home, apartment, dorm these are old spaces that are exclusively yours. Others require your consent and knowledge to enter. Secondary Space not allotted to someone, but people may still feel a specific ownership of that space.Example You go to a restaurant once a week, and sit in the same booth each time. If you enter the restaurant and someone is sitting in that booth, you are slightly irked by the fact that theyve occupied your secondary space. Public Space that is available to all, but not always. Example Anyone is free to parkanywhere they like, unless a space is already occupied.Interaction Space created during an interaction. Example If two people are sitting at a table talking to one another, nobody will sit in between or obstruct their view of one another (they would be disrupting the interaction space). Movements The study of kinesics began in the early 1950s with a study of how people communicate through facial expression, gesture, body movement and posture. Posture can suggest a persons degree of interest, a status separation between communicators, or the level of fondness the listener has for the communicator. Arm position, body orientation, direction of lean and body openness are all examples of posture. Have you ever given someone a nictitate? Chances are you have and your gesture was probably well received Gesturing is a silent body movement that can indicate a nu mber of verbal messages. A hand wave to say how-dye-do, a thumbs up to indicate approval, an eye enfold to indicate a negative reaction all gestures that speak.Nonverbal Cues of the Voice Have you ever been told to bide your tone? If so, you were warned to be careful of your paralanguage. Qualities like volume, pitch and tempo even articulation and eloquence give each of us a unique voice print. The voice set describes the context within which someone is speaking, and can encompass mood, age, gender, even culture. Eye Contact Studying eye contact during public speaking, or oculesics, is a fascinating experiment. Eye contact typically indicates interest, attention and engagement. This is not to be confused with eye gazing.So what does it all mean? What does nonverbal communication really tell us? It expresses emotions and interpersonal feelings it accompanies speech in managing the cues of interaction between speakers and listeners and it manages inaudible cues between speakers a nd listeners.When Do You Say No?There are two types of speakers, those that are nervous and those that are liars. Mark Twain, American author and humoristCould you stand up and give us a presentation on nuclear biophysics? How about pharmacology or pathophysiology of the life? Neither could I because were not knowledgeable on the subjects. These topics are well out of our comfort zones. Now could you stand up and tell us how to make Ramen noodles or eggs benedict? Probably As important as it is to know your facts on things that interest to you, its equally important to know your boundaries.When is it ok to pass on a speaking opportunity, or even pass on a particular topic? If the topic is too technical or methodological, and youre solely not versed enough in the material to discuss it, move on. Choosing a topic thats rich with health check terminology would produce unsatisfactory results. Your heart wouldnt be in it, and youd lose interest quickly or worst of all procrastinate u ntil it was too late. Regardless, the resulting performance would not please. If the audience knows more than you do, youre likely to be recognized as a fraud quickly. I wouldnt remember speaking on a topic that youre modestly familiar with, when the listeners are experts or considerably more savvy than you. Dont even think about a question-and-answer segment If youre under the weather, its simply not your day. You would not want to sit through a lecture where the speaker was coughing, sneezing, had a raspy, scratchy voice and looked generally unhappy to be there so dont be that person. If venues can reschedule concerts, hosts can reschedule your presentation. Even in this class it might be worth waiting an extra day to hit the record button, to make sure the germs are goneMake no mistake Im certainly not advocating that you not research new things, or explore new topics or investigate new puzzles. Im simply saying I want you to put yourselves in a position to succeedNonverbal Communication, Part IIWhile the study of nonverbal behavior dates back to the late 19th century,theres one thing that we dont need experimentation to prove that nonverbal behavior is a real entity that influences interpretation, meaning and communication in general. As we discussed last week, the physicality of nonverbal behavior extends from our eyebrows down to our leg stance, and includes everything in between. But what do we get when verbal and nonverbal communication mesh?There are six ways in which verbal and nonverbal communication can interact complementary, substitution, confliction, repetition, regulation, and moderating. antonymous Messages are interpreted more accurately when verbal and nonverbal communications complement each other. Messages are remembered better when there is no chance for misinterpreting. A smile that accompanies a positive statement, a wink that accompanies a congratulatory remark, a thumbs up that accompanies an approval all are forms of complemen tary nonverbal gestures.reversal Messages can be replaced entirely by facial expressions, body movements or gesturing, or positioning. Waving hello or goodbye replaces the spoken salutations. A slouching student can indicate disinterest or exhaustion, without the student saying as much. Raised eyebrows can indicate surprise or shock, without uttering a single syllable. Confliction Messages can be misinterpreted, misconstrued or even misleading if nonverbal cues indicate one thing, and the verbal cues indicate another. somebody on trial may be expressing a truthful statement, while avoiding eye contact or fidgeting an indication that s/he may not be telling the truth. You are probably familiar with the clich mixed signals.This could serve as nickname for confliction. Repetition Messages can be repeated and reinforced simply through gesturing, for emphasis. An instructor may announce a particular topic, then point to it on a smart board, for example. Regulation Messages can be regula ted through physical touches that cause no natural harm or threat, but merely call attention. For example, if two people are speaking and a third person touches the arm of one, that clearly means that s/he wants the attention of one of the participants. altitude your hand in class when you have a response is another form of regulation. Moderating Messages can be emphasized, highlighted or even dramaticallyaltered with moderating gestures. somebody angry might evoke a fist or experience a changed pace of breathing. Someone nervous might pace. Someone excited might fidget or rock in a chair.How Can You Create a Great Persuasive Speech?As we get closer to delivering the final Persuasive Speech, I want to offer you a few tips to keep in mind as you make your final preparations alimentation your claims with solid evidence. If you are hoping to put an end to something like the global greenhouse crisis, prove that such a crisis exists first. The funny thing about evidence is more doesn t always mean better. Think quality, not quantity. Give your audience a way to help.Assert your stance and call for action. Propose a solution or a way for the audience to get involved. Audience members are often ask What can I do to help? Dont leave them wondering. Make sure what youre asking of the audience is reasonable. We need to switch to all-organic diets and never drink non-filtered water again Thats probably a bit far-fetched, and highly unlikely that youll be taken seriously. Expect and embrace controversySpeak about a topic that emotionally impacts you and tell us why. Youve chosen a topic some time ago, so make it clear why youre so vested in this debate. Honor the time limits. The persuasive speech will be 8-10 minutes long. I have worked with some faculty who watch up to the maximum time, and grade how youve done to that point. So if your speech is 11 minutes long, this instructor wouldve missed the last minute Be conscious of the clock. Strive to challenge and change your audiences attitudes, values, and beliefs. Youre not going to convince everyone, but you can certainly ask your audience to hear you out and respect your opinion. Always be polite, courteous, and direct. Nobody knows it all, and your information came from somewhere. So tell us where This ties into the first point about supporting your claims with solid evidence. Cite your sources, give credit where its due, and yourcredibility will benefit as a result. Additional Types of Public SpeakingMake sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening. Dorothy Sarnoff, American musical theatre actress and self-help expertEach week well take a close look at some of the different types of public speeches out there. This week, lets look at three that you may be familiar with Award Presentations, Eulogy, and Roast.Award PresentationsAward presentations are typically straightforward and simple. Unless the award or recognition is meant to be a surprise, always start with the awardees name (and always make sure you pronounce it correctly). Talk about the criterion for the award why was the winner chosen? Who recommended him/her?List the achievements that made the winner worthy, and use vivid, powerful examples to illustrate why the winner is deserving of the recognition. Touch on the interpersonal side, too. What characteristics does the winner possess, that are admirable and commendable? Point them out. Usually theres a trophy, plaque or certificate involved in an award presentation, so make sure you let off the significance of the item the winner is receiving.And one last bit of advice when the winner comes to the stage to receive the award, hand it to him/her with the left hand, so that you can shake with the rightEulogyWithout question, eulogies can be the most indescribable and emotionally drawing speech there is. But it can also be uplifting. Eulogies offer hope they combat grief with happiness and emphasize the positive qualities of t he person who has died. Eulogies are commonly linked to religious figures, butthats not always the case. Sometimes family members or close friends of the deceased speak on his/her behalf, as the orator is required to offer perspective, comfort and reassurance to in attendance.When delivering a eulogy, its critical to acknowledge the feelings of loss, sadness, shock, even anger but touch on them, dont linger. Try to stay on brighter notes, and recall positive memories and recollections that others might not have experienced. Highlight the persons legacy and their contributions to those around them.Use language of inclusion things like I know that many of us have seen or All of us who cared for. Tie concepts of life and death together with universalities like the circle of life or the immortality of the human spirit.RoastRoasts are most commonly known for their comedic value, as has been demonstrated on non-homogeneous celebrity roasts on the television channel, Comedy Central.Thes e speech engagements are meant to be light-hearted and poke fun at a suspecting target but its not spiteful or angered. Its a teasing, satiric style that parodies a persons life, lifestyle, occupations, habits, history, etc. Anything goes in a roast and the irony is that it teases with the truth.Roasts are an art that has evolved into a vastly different engagement that it was a few short decades ago. Its best illustrated by showing, rather than telling.Consider Ronald Reagans roast of Frank Sinatra in 1977I chose question B. I felt she was very energetic and did an excellent job using gestures and adjusting her vocal tone and pace to keep your attention.She put in some of her own humor which always keeps the crowd interested. I also feel she did a great job with her eye contact. She didnt stay focused on one area of the room for too long. Overall she had a great speech and it showed that she does this often. Wonderful self confidence and presentation.